Deductive Inductive And Abductive Reasoning Pdf
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When conducting qualitative research, scholars should consider the relation between data collection and analysis as well as between theory and data. There are at least two ways to relate data collection to analysis in the research process.
- Deductive reasoning
- Deductive reasoning
- Abductive reasoning (abductive approach)
- Deductive, inductive and abductive approaches
Learn the difference between the two types of reasoning and how to use them when evaluating facts and arguments. As odd as it sounds, in science, law, and many other fields, there is no such thing as proof — there are only conclusions drawn from facts and observations.
Deductive reasoning , also deductive logic , is the process of reasoning from one or more statements premises to reach a logical conclusion.
Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear , and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning "top-down logic" contrasts with inductive reasoning "bottom-up logic" : in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse , narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion s remains.
In deductive reasoning there is no epistemic uncertainty. The inductive reasoning is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs — mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning differs from abductive reasoning by the direction of the reasoning relative to the conditionals.
The idea of "deduction" popularized in Sherlock Holmes stories is technically abduction , rather than deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, whereas abductive reasoning goes in the direction contrary to that of the conditionals.
The first premise states that all objects classified as "men" have the attribute "mortal. Modus ponens also known as "affirming the antecedent" or "the law of detachment" is the primary deductive rule of inference. The argument form is listed below:. Such an argument commits the logical fallacy of affirming the consequent.
It might be true that other angles outside this range are also obtuse. Modus tollens also known as "the law of contrapositive" is a deductive rule of inference. In contrast to modus ponens , reasoning with modus tollens goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditional. The general expression for modus tollens is the following:. In proposition logic the law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another.
Here is the general form:. We deduced the final statement by combining the hypothesis of the first statement with the conclusion of the second statement. We also allow that this could be a false statement. This is an example of the transitive property in mathematics. Another example is the transitive property of equality which can be stated in this form:. Deductive arguments are evaluated in terms of their validity and soundness.
In other words, the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. It is possible to have a deductive argument that is logically valid but is not sound. Fallacious arguments often take that form. The example's first premise is false — there are people who eat carrots who are not quarterbacks — but the conclusion would necessarily be true, if the premises were true.
In other words, it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. False generalizations — such as "Everyone who eats carrots is a quarterback" — are often used to make unsound arguments. The fact that there are some people who eat carrots but are not quarterbacks proves the flaw of the argument.
In this example, the first statement uses categorical reasoning , saying that all carrot-eaters are definitely quarterbacks. This theory of deductive reasoning — also known as term logic — was developed by Aristotle , but was superseded by propositional sentential logic and predicate logic. Deductive reasoning can be contrasted with inductive reasoning , in regards to validity and soundness. Aristotle , a Greek philosopher , started documenting deductive reasoning in the 4th century BC.
Developing four rules to follow for proving an idea deductively, Decartes laid the foundation for the deductive portion of the scientific method. Decartes' background in geometry and mathematics influenced his ideas on the truth and reasoning, causing him to develop a system of general reasoning now used for most mathematical reasoning. Similar to postulates, Decartes believed that ideas could be self-evident and that reasoning alone must prove that observations are reliable.
These ideas also lay the foundations for the ideas of rationalism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Method of reasoning by which premises understood to be true produce logically certain conclusions. Main article: Modus ponens. Main article: Modus tollens. This section needs expansion.
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Cognitive Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Psychology Press. Retrieved In one sense [ American University of Beirut. Retrieved 24 October Links to related articles. Habituation Sensitization. Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Imprinting Observational learning. Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Abductive reasoning.
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Prescriptions regarding organization-scientific methodology are typically founded on the researcher's ability to approach perfect rationality. In a critical examination of the use of scientific reasoning deduction, induction, abduction in organization research, we seek to replace this unrealistic premise with an alternative that incorporates a more reasonable view of the cognitive capacity of the researcher. To this end, we construct a typology of descriptive, prescriptive, and normative criteria for the evaluation of organization-scientific reasoning practices. This typology addresses both cognitive limits and the diversity of research approaches in organization research. We make the general case for incorporating not only the computational but also the cognitive element into the formulation and evaluation of scientific reasoning and arguments. Learn About the New eReader. Downloaded times in the past 12 months.
Abductive reasoning (abductive approach)
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research.
During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Another type of reasoning, inductive, is also used. Often, people confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning, and vice versa. It is important to learn the meaning of each type of reasoning so that proper logic can be identified. Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning.
A feature of research designs are the approach to reasoning that they incorporate. There are various approaches that can be taken. Three of the main ways are deduction, induction and abduction.
Reasoning is the process of using existing knowledge to draw conclusions, make predictions, or construct explanations.
Deductive, inductive and abductive approaches
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PDF | We Examine 3 common types of reasoning: Deduction, also called logical deduction or, informally, “top-down” logic, is the process of.
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