List Of Endocrine Glands And Their Hormones And Functions Pdf
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A gland is an organ which produces and releases substances that perform a specific function in the body. There are two types of gland. Endocrine glands are ductless glands and release the substances that they make hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones.
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Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively.
It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface.
Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands. Both saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, and sweat, secreted by the sweat glands, act on local tissues near the duct openings. In contrast, the hormones secreted by endocrine glands are carried by the circulation to exert their actions on tissues remote from the site of their secretion.
As far back as bce , the ancient Chinese were able to diagnose and provide effective treatments for some endocrinologic disorders. For example, seaweed, which is rich in iodine , was prescribed for the treatment of goitre enlargement of the thyroid gland. Perhaps the earliest demonstration of direct endocrinologic intervention in humans was the castration of men who could then be relied upon, more or less, to safeguard the chastity of women living in harems.
During the Middle Ages and later, the practice persisting well into the 19th century, prepubertal boys were sometimes castrated to preserve the purity of their treble voices. This knowledge led to an abiding interest in restoring or enhancing male sexual powers.
In the 18th century, London-based Scottish surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist John Hunter successfully transplanted the testis of a rooster into the abdomen of a hen. The transplanted organ developed a blood supply in the hen, though whether masculinization occurred was unclear. In German physiologist Arnold Adolph Berthold performed a similar experiment, except, instead of hens, he transplanted rooster testes into capons castrated roosters.
The capons subsequently regained secondary sex characteristics, demonstrating that the testes were the source of a masculinizing substance. His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig. These experiments resulted in the widespread use of organ extracts to treat endocrine conditions organotherapy.
Modern endocrinology largely originated in the 20th century, however. Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon — used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy.
This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures. When this resistance is overcome, illness ensues. Human endocrine system Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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External Websites. Robert D. See Article History. The principal glands of the female and male human endocrine systems. The endocrine system is a complex system of glands that secrete hormones throughout the body. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
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You and Your Hormones
Error: This is required. Error: Not a valid value. The hormonal system called the endocrine system in medical terminology has various glands that release different hormones. They take messages from one part of the body the gland to tell another part of the body the target cell to do something important. The endocrine glands influence reproduction, metabolism, growth and many other functions.
You and Your Hormones
Hormones are secreted in the body by several glands that are essential for the growth, development, reproduction, etc. They are secreted by special tissues in our body through endocrine glands. Different hormones have different effects on the shape of the body.
Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones
The hypothalamus, an endocrine organ, regulates the anterior pituitary gland and transports hormones along the posterior pituitary gland. The system releases hormones that act on target cells to regulate development, growth, energy metabolism, reproduction, and many behaviors. Endocrine glands contain no ducts; they release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blood. The collection of these glands makes up the endocrine system. The main endocrine glands, which we will learn about in this section and in the following ones, are the pituitary anterior and posterior , thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex and medulla , pancreas, and gonads. The hypothalamus in vertebrates integrates the endocrine and nervous systems. The hypothalamus is an endocrine organ located in the diencephalon of the brain.
Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones , directly into the blood. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland , pituitary gland , pancreas , ovaries , testes , thyroid gland , parathyroid gland , hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands are neuroendocrine organs.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS. 1. List the general functions of hormones. 2. List the organs that secrete hormone as their first function and those organs that secrete.
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