Causes Of Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming Pdf
- and pdf
- Friday, May 28, 2021 2:24:57 AM
- 1 comment
File Name: causes of greenhouse effect and global warming .zip
For the warming over the last century, there is no convincing alternative explanation.
Greenhouse gases are crucial to keeping our planet at a habitable temperature. The greenhouse effect: some of the infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere, but most is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gas molecules and clouds. A greenhouse gas is so called because it absorbs infrared radiation in the form of heat, which is circulated in the atmosphere and eventually lost to space. Greenhouse gases also increase the rate at which the atmosphere can absorb short-wave radiation from the sun, but this has a much weaker effect on global temperatures. The contribution that a greenhouse gas makes to the greenhouse effect depends on how much heat it absorbs, how much it re-radiates and how much of it is in the atmosphere.
The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change
Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately.
Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure.
Temperature increases related to global warming have been the most pronounced at the poles, where they often make the difference between frozen and melted ice. Polar bears rely on small gaps in the ice to hunt their prey. As these gaps widen because of continued melting, prey capture has become more challenging for these animals. In the IPCC reported that the interval between and saw an increase in global average surface temperature of approximately 0.
The increase is closer to 1. A special report produced by the IPCC in honed this estimate further, noting that human beings and human activities have been responsible for a worldwide average temperature increase of between 0. The predicted rise in temperature was based on a range of possible scenarios that accounted for future greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation severity reduction measures and on uncertainties in the model projections. Some of the main uncertainties include the precise role of feedback processes and the impacts of industrial pollutants known as aerosols , which may offset some warming.
Such damage would include increased extinction of many plant and animal species, shifts in patterns of agriculture , and rising sea levels. By all but a few national governments had begun the process of instituting carbon reduction plans as part of the Paris Agreement , a treaty designed to help countries keep global warming to 1. Authors of a special report published by the IPCC in noted that should carbon emissions continue at their present rate, the increase in average near-surface air temperatures would reach 1.
Past IPCC assessments reported that the global average sea level rose by some 19—21 cm 7. It also predicted, again depending on a wide range of scenarios, that the global average sea level would rise 26—77 cm The scenarios referred to above depend mainly on future concentrations of certain trace gases, called greenhouse gases , that have been injected into the lower atmosphere in increasing amounts through the burning of fossil fuels for industry, transportation , and residential uses.
In the IPCC reported that concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere surpassed those found in ice cores dating back , years. Of all these gases, carbon dioxide is the most important, both for its role in the greenhouse effect and for its role in the human economy.
It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the midth century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly parts per million ppm. By the middle of they had risen to ppm, and, if fossil fuels continue to be burned at current rates, they are projected to reach ppm by the midst century—essentially, a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations in years. A vigorous debate is in progress over the extent and seriousness of rising surface temperatures, the effects of past and future warming on human life, and the need for action to reduce future warming and deal with its consequences.
This article provides an overview of the scientific background and public policy debate related to the subject of global warming. It considers the causes of rising near-surface air temperatures, the influencing factors, the process of climate research and forecasting, the possible ecological and social impacts of rising temperatures, and the public policy developments since the midth century. Global warming Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.
Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Michael E. See Article History. An overview of the role greenhouse gases play in modifying Earth's climate. During the second half of the 20th century and early part of the 21st century, global average surface temperature increased and sea level rose.
Over the same period, the amount of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere decreased. Top Questions. Graph of the predicted increase in Earth's average surface temperature according to a series of climate change scenarios that assume different levels of economic development, population growth, and fossil fuel use.
The assumptions made by each scenario are given at the bottom of the graph. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. The greenhouse effect on Earth. Some incoming sunlight is reflected by Earth's atmosphere and surface, but most is absorbed by the surface, which is warmed.
Infrared IR radiation is then emitted from the surface. Some IR radiation escapes to space, but some is absorbed by the atmosphere's greenhouse gases especially water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane and reradiated in all directions, some to space and some back toward the surface, where it further warms the surface and the lower atmosphere.
Load Next Page.
The greenhouse effect
The threat of global climate change promises to be the single most pressing environmental issue as the world enters the 21st Century. Increasingly, it becomes incumbent upon decision-makers from a wide array of backgrounds to gain a sound understanding of the fundamentals of the climate change issue and how it relates to their areas of responsibility. The purpose of this chapter is to review the main elements of the climate change problem and the implications for Bangladesh in order to highlight the key scientific and policy issues involved. This is accomplished by addressing seven main questions: How has climate changed and why? How is the composition of the atmosphere changing? Have variations in greenhouse gases caused climate to change?
Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure.
Before we dig deep into the causes of greenhouse effect, it is important for us to know what is greenhouse effect. You must have heard of greenhouse effect during any debate on global warming. The light that we get from the sun helps to keep this planet warm.
Jump to navigation. And yes, it's really happening. Over the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And scientists say that unless we curb global-warming emissions, average U. Normally, this radiation would escape into space—but these pollutants, which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere, trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter.
Их количество удваивалось каждую минуту. Еще немного, и любой обладатель компьютера - иностранные шпионы, радикалы, террористы - получит доступ в хранилище секретной информации американского правительства. Пока техники тщетно старались отключить электропитание, собравшиеся на подиуме пытались понять расшифрованный текст. Дэвид Беккер и два оперативных агента тоже пробовали сделать это, сидя в мини-автобусе в Севилье. ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ Соши размышляла вслух: - Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки… Пёрл-Харбор. Отказ Хирохито… - Нам нужно число, - повторял Джабба, - а не политические теории.
А вы тем временем погибаете. - Он посмотрел на экран. - Осталось девять минут.
Где она? - Сердце Беккера неистово колотилось. - Пошел к черту. - У меня неотложное дело! - рявкнул Беккер.
- Ничего себе чрезвычайная ситуация. Хотя большинство отделов АНБ работали в полном составе семь дней в неделю, по субботам в шифровалке было тихо. По своей природе математики-криптографы - неисправимые трудоголики, поэтому существовало неписаное правило, что по субботам они отдыхают, если только не случается нечто непредвиденное. Взломщики шифров были самым ценным достоянием АНБ, и никто не хотел, чтобы они сгорали на работе. Сьюзан посмотрела на корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, видневшийся справа.
Правда открылась со всей очевидностью: Хейл столкнул Чатрукьяна. Нетвердой походкой Сьюзан подошла к главному выходу- двери, через которую она вошла сюда несколько часов. Отчаянное нажатие на кнопки неосвещенной панели ничего не дало: массивная дверь не поддалась. Они в ловушке, шифровалка превратилась в узилище. Купол здания, похожий на спутник, находился в ста девяти ярдах от основного здания АНБ, и попасть туда можно было только через главный вход.
У вас есть кое-что, что я должен получить. Эти слова оказались не самыми подходящими. Глаза немца сузились. - Ein Ring, - сказал Беккер. - Du hast einen Ring.