Difference Between Culture And Religion Pdf
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Culture relates to nature our biology and genetics and nurture our environment and surroundings that also shape our identities. Examine the ways culture and biology interact to form societies, norms, rituals and other representations of culture. Human beings are biological creatures.
- Religion and culture
- Religion and Culture
- Religion and social values for sustainability
- Difference Between Religion and Culture
Religion and culture are just two of the closely-related matters in this world but are actually different in nature and definition. There have been several theories suggesting the connection of the two such as religion being the center of culture. However, we can never deny the fact that certain cultures can also be disconnected from any form of religion in a society. This article will give a glimpse on their individual definitions and their major differences. Read on and take some notes, if you will.
Religion and culture
Religion, belief and culture should be recognized as potential sources of moral purpose and personal strength in healthcare, enhancing the welfare of both clinicians and patients amidst the experience of ill-health, healing, suffering and dying. Communication between doctors and patients and between healthcare staff should attend sensitively to the welfare benefits of religion, belief and culture. Doctors should respect personal religious and cultural commitments, taking account of their significance for treatment and care preferences.
Good doctors understand their own beliefs and those of others. They hold that patient welfare is best served by understanding the importance of religion, belief and culture to patients and colleagues.
The sensitive navigation of differences between people's religions, beliefs and cultures is part of doctors' civic obligations and in the UK should follow the guidance of the General Medical Council and Department of Health. In particular, apparent conflict between clinical judgement or normal practices and a patient's culture, religion and belief should be considered carefully.
Doctors' own religion or culture may play an important role in promoting adherence to this good practice. In all matters, doctors' conduct should be governed by the law and arrangements for conscientious objection that are in effect. Religion, belief and culture should be recognized in healthcare as potential sources of moral purpose and personal strength amidst the experience of ill-health, healing, suffering and dying. They should not be viewed solely or primarily as sources of problems in the delivery and reception of care.
Rather, religion, belief and culture can mutually enhance the welfare of both clinicians and patients amidst the everyday challenges of patient experience and clinical practice. The conduct of medical practice should be informed by discerning application of this general principle. In particular, communication between doctors and patients and between healthcare staff should attend sensitively to the possible welfare benefits of religion, belief and culture.
The General Medical Council GMC specifically recognizes the importance of understanding spiritual, social and cultural factors when taking a history and of sharing relevant factors with colleagues when handing over Good Medical Practice. In short, healthcare institutions are an important context in which people's personal religious and cultural commitments must be recognized as worthy of democratic respect and dignity.
This recognition is limited in two ways. First, recognition should not give rise to any unlawful action. Second, recognition does not entail the approval or endorsement of any particular belief. This is especially important where there is an apparent conflict between clinically indicated recommendations and a patient's religious or cultural commitment.
For example, an individual's interpretation of life and health may entail that suffering is not to be eliminated but rather endured and alleviated where possible. This view allows that suffering can be a time of learning and disclosure, even redemption and reconciliation. This emphasis would have a practical impact on decisions about the choice and appropriateness of pain relief measures.
Similarly, for many religions, life does not end in death. Such belief is worthy of recognition and gives rise to treatment and care preferences that are relevant to a judgement of what is in the best interests of the patient. Apparent conflict between clinical judgement and culture, religion and belief should be approached sensitively and without assumptions about the significance of the belief to the patient's attitudes and preferences.
An individual's beliefs may not be wholly in line with their religion or culture's normative teaching. Therefore doctors should be sensitive not only to the strength of a patient's belief, but also to the particular interpretation of religion or culture the individual holds. Listening carefully to the answer to such a question will help to avoid any assumptions being made that might adversely affect the patient's care.
In particular, a doctor's own religion, culture or beliefs should not adversely affect patients, 2 either in the interpretation of a patient's religion or culture, or in the expression of the doctor's own beliefs. There are commonly circumstances where a doctor's expression of their beliefs is appropriate in promoting patient care. For example, a doctor's personal understanding and experience of Hindu or Muslim rites can provide reassurance to patients or relatives concerned about following prescribed mourning or burial practices.
Doctors should, however, think carefully before articulating their own beliefs even if they are supported by law. For example, a belief that brainstem death is actual death is in line with UK law. However, the articulation of such a belief by a doctor, especially in circumstances where organ donation is a factor, may be experienced as hostile by patients or their relatives, such as some Buddhists and Christians, who believe that only cardiorespiratory death is actual death 3 ; this is also discussed by David Jones — see Further reading.
Similarly, a doctor may have a philosophical belief, again in line with UK law, that a pre-sentient fetus, especially one severely disabled and not compatible with life outside the womb, is not a child.
But this belief should not adversely affect and cause distress to patients who may either be uncertain about or profoundly disagree with such a philosophical belief. In many circumstances, it is difficult to know whether adverse effects will occur if doctors express their views.
Much turns on the manner in which such matters arise and are discussed. Good doctors will have an awareness of their own commitments and an understanding of the beliefs and commitments of others. They will also believe that patient welfare is best served by taking seriously the possibility that religion, belief and culture may be important factors in patients' and colleagues' lives. In all matters, doctors' conduct should be governed by the legal regime in operation in their working context.
UK equality legislation provides that services should be provided without discrimination based on protected characteristics The UK Equality Act lists the following protected characteristics: age, disability, gender reassignment, race, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy or maternity, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.
For example, a religious belief that a particular sexual lifestyle or the use of alcohol is wrong should not adversely affect patients' care.
Such beliefs are themselves worthy of respect and protection in a plural, democratic society, are not unlawful and may be fully compatible with an affirmation of human dignity. Religion or culture can itself play an important role in promoting adherence to such good practice.
For example, a Christian or other well-grounded commitment to the importance of mercy in human life can underpin some doctors' commitment to treat the health consequences of patients' damaging lifestyle choices without any condemnatory attitude towards the patient. There are occasions when some interpretations of religion and cultural traditions may lead to unlawful actions such as carrying out or assisting in female genital mutilation.
In such cases and depending on the circumstances, there are mandatory reporting and safeguarding procedures that doctors must carry out, as specified, in England, by the Department of Health. The circumstances in which conscientious objection is available vary across legal jurisdictions. Doctors are therefore permitted to explain the reason for not carrying out a procedure but should do so bearing in mind the concerns about sensitivity discussed above.
Some would see it as involving complicity in a moral wrong, while others, who similarly hold, for example, abortion to be a wrong, would see making arrangements for another colleague to take over as reasonable.
Common circumstances where a conscientious objection is acted upon currently include abortion, fertility treatment and the withdrawal of life-prolonging treatment from patients who lack capacity. If physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia ever became legal in any part of the UK, the same provision for conscientious objection would seem appropriate. But any doctor who currently assists a suicide or performs an act of euthanasia, perhaps even citing a positive claim on their conscience to do so, would be acting illegally under UK law.
In communication and ethical discernment about religion and culture, doctors should seek to understand patients' and colleagues' beliefs, be sensitive to them in practice and comply with the law. It is a general principle that everyone deserves careful recognition and consideration of their beliefs and views in a democratic society. Healthcare institutions are vital environments for the realization of this principle in practice. Doctors should ask sensitively, gain information relevant to the care of patients and contribute where appropriate.
In this way, doctors have a civic obligation to enhance a society's overall quality of understanding and sensitivity to the plural religious and cultural views that characterize its life. The views expressed within this article are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Trust.
To test your knowledge based on the article you have just read, please complete the questions below. The answers can be found at the end of the issue or online here. A doctor was talking to a patient with terminal cancer about the prognosis. As part of this consultation the doctor talked about their own religious beliefs.
A nurse heard the conversation and reported the doctor to the hospital management. What is the most appropriate response of the hospital management? A year-old man was terminally injured in a road traffic accident and was on the organ donor register. However, he was known to be a practising Buddhist and his partner who was also a Buddhist confirmed that he would not have wished for any interference of the body until after breathing had ceased.
Which is the most appropriate attitude of health professionals to such patients' religious beliefs and wishes? A year-old woman attended her general practitioner seeking a termination of pregnancy as she felt she was not ready to undertake looking after a child at that time.
What is the most appropriate action for the doctor to take? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sponsored Document from. Medicine Abingdon. Joshua Hordern. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
His research interests are compassion in healthcare, precision medicine and religion in public life. Competing interests: none declared.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Religion, belief and culture should be recognized as potential sources of moral purpose and personal strength in healthcare, enhancing the welfare of both clinicians and patients amidst the experience of ill-health, healing, suffering and dying.
Keywords: Belief, communication, compassion, conscientious objection, culture, equality, religion. Key points. Recognizing the place of religion and culture in healthcare Religion, belief and culture should be recognized in healthcare as potential sources of moral purpose and personal strength amidst the experience of ill-health, healing, suffering and dying.
Fair and respectful treatment In short, healthcare institutions are an important context in which people's personal religious and cultural commitments must be recognized as worthy of democratic respect and dignity. Understanding sensitivities Apparent conflict between clinical judgement and culture, religion and belief should be approached sensitively and without assumptions about the significance of the belief to the patient's attitudes and preferences.
Legal obligations In all matters, doctors' conduct should be governed by the legal regime in operation in their working context. Conscientious objection The circumstances in which conscientious objection is available vary across legal jurisdictions. Democratic recognition as civic obligation In communication and ethical discernment about religion and culture, doctors should seek to understand patients' and colleagues' beliefs, be sensitive to them in practice and comply with the law.
Key references 1. General Medical Council. GMC; London: Good medical practice. UK Department of Health. DH; London: Religion or belief: a practical guide for the NHS. Personal beliefs and medical practice. Biggar N. Why religion deserves a place in secular medicine.
Religion and Culture
Discourse on social values as they relate to environmental and sustainability issues has almost exclusively been conducted in a secular intellectual context. However, with a renewed emphasis on culture as defining and shaping links between people and nature, there has been an increasing level of scholarly attention to the role of religion and spirituality in defining and understanding social values. In this article we explore the intersection of religion and social values for sustainability. First, we consider this nexus as it has been explored in existing scholarship. We acknowledge a body of research that has suggested that many religions are broadly associated with self-transcendent values.
All religions, arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. All these aspirations are directed towards ennobling man's life, lifting it from the sphere of mere physical existence and leading the individual towards freedom. Albert Einstein. Everybody has beliefs about life and the world they experience. Mutually supportive beliefs may form belief systems, which may be religious, philosophical or ideological. Religions are belief systems that relate humanity to spirituality. The following definition from Wikipedia provides a good overview of the many dimensions of religion: Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values.
Religion and social values for sustainability
The interplay between language and religion has been neglected by linguists and researchers in Iran. Religion and Gender Equality— The State of Play The relationship between religion and gender equality is a complex one. Why religion is so widespread amongst human societies? This study is going
Download your free copy here. Religion and culture seem like complex ideas to study from the perspective of International Relations. After all, scholars and philosophers have long debated the meaning of these terms and the impact they have had on our comprehension of the social world around us. So is it an impossibly complicated task to study religion and culture at the global level? In this chapter, which completes the first section of the book, we will explore why thinking about religious and cultural factors in global affairs is as integral as the other issues we have covered thus far.
Difference Between Religion and Culture
Religion, belief and culture should be recognized as potential sources of moral purpose and personal strength in healthcare, enhancing the welfare of both clinicians and patients amidst the experience of ill-health, healing, suffering and dying. Communication between doctors and patients and between healthcare staff should attend sensitively to the welfare benefits of religion, belief and culture. Doctors should respect personal religious and cultural commitments, taking account of their significance for treatment and care preferences. Good doctors understand their own beliefs and those of others. They hold that patient welfare is best served by understanding the importance of religion, belief and culture to patients and colleagues.
Religion is a social - cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals , worldviews , texts , sanctified places , prophecies , ethics , or organizations , that relates humanity to supernatural , transcendental , and spiritual elements. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine ,  sacred things ,  faith ,  a supernatural being or supernatural beings  or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religions have sacred histories and narratives , which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places , that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life , the universe , and other things. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10, distinct religions worldwide.
What is Religion?
Young people generally are often portrayed as being full of ambitions and hopes for the world and, therefore, important drivers of cultural change. The United Nations Population Fund describes well this expectation on young people as shapers of the culture of the future: As they grow through adolescence, young people develop their identity and become autonomous individuals. They develop their own ways of perceiving, appreciating, classifying and distinguishing issues, and the codes, symbols and language in which to express them. Culture is everything. Culture is the way we dress, the way we carry our heads, the way we walk, the way we tie our ties.
Следопыт так и не вернулся. Хейл его отключил. И Сьюзан принялась объяснять, как Хейл отозвал Следопыта и как она обнаружила электронную почту Танкадо, отправленную на адрес Хейла. Снова воцарилось молчание. Стратмор покачал головой, отказываясь верить тому, что услышал.
Роса? - Беккер сжал руку Клушара. Старик застонал. - Он называл ее… - Речь его стала невнятной и едва слышной. Медсестра была уже совсем близко и что-то кричала Беккеру по-испански, но он ничего не слышал. Его глаза не отрывались от губ Клушара.
Регистратура. Бедлам. Так он и. Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик.
Да, сэр. У нас все это записано на пленку, и если вы хотите… - Исчезает фильтр Х-одиннадцать! - послышался возглас техника.