Culture And Conflict Resolution Pdf
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- Cultural influence in Conflict Resolution
- The influence of organizational culture and conflict on market orientation
- Language, culture and conflict resolution. A case of Kiswahili as a unifying language in Kenya
- Conflict Resolution across Cultures: Bridging the Gap
Cultural conflict is a type of conflict that occurs when different cultural values and beliefs clash. Broad and narrow definitions exist for the concept, both of which have been used to explain violence including war and crime, on either a micro or macro scale. Jonathan H. Turner defines cultural conflict as a conflict caused by "differences in cultural values and beliefs that place people at odds with one another.
Cultural influence in Conflict Resolution
Daily news on media is packed with information on various conflict resolutions going on throughout the world in an attempt to end ongoing disputes. Nations, organisations, communities, governments and individuals negotiate as final attempts to resolve differences in a diplomatic forum rather than combative retaliation. These negotiations can be protracted and tenuous especially when the disputing parties come from different cultures.
This thesis asserts that, culture is a neglected aspect in a conflict resolution especially between Israel and Palestine conflict as a case study. Cultural misunderstandings are main additional confounding factors that cause complications in communication creating misperceptions hindering acceptable compromise.
The resolution depends on the approach negotiations with a clear cultural diversity among the conflicting parties and mediators. It will look at gathering information from different sources without putting much emphasis on any. It seeks to come up with recommendations on strategies to forefront cultural understanding for sustainable conflict resolutions.
May the Almighty God bless you all more abundantly. In a special note, I would like to extend my acknowledgement to my Tutor Ms Rina Lehnhoff for her guidance through from the time of my proposal development up to this time of finalizing with the thesis report.
In fact the parental and professional guidance made this a success. Thank you very much. This has drawn the attention of the whole world for a longest while ever since midth Century according to recent researcher. This was 'forever'.
Genesis , 8. According to historian Richard Hartmann, prior to the creation of Israel in these communities were ethnologically a chaos of all the possible human combinations and so did not share a common Arab identity. The land was not a country and had no frontiers, only administrative boundaries Prof. Bernard Lewis. Despite a long term peace process and general reconciliation, the two loggerhead nations have failed to reach the final peace agreement.
The key issues in this historical conflict reflect mutual recognition culture , land boarders, security, water control, control of Jerusalem, Israel settlements, Palestinian freedom of movement etc. The need for control and ownership of these areas sparked all existing conflicts between the two nations. This thesis mainly focuses at studying how culture influences conflict resolution that seems to be underrated at all levels yet when analyze critically, culture has an upper hand in influencing conflict which resolution can as well be influenced by culture.
This will mainly be recognizing culture and understand on negotiation table at all levels. It therefore implies that culture influences and identities become much more important depending on the context. For Israel and Palestine, the failed negotiation attempts emanates from the aspects of cultural identity which are threatened and misunderstood which narrow identity has become the fixed focus of stereotyping such that even negative projections and conflict escalate.
To discover how culture influences during Conflict resolution at all levels. To find how conflicts are managed during negotiations in a cross-cultural setting. To identify viable avenues of conflict resolution in a multicultural environment. Negotiations conducted on a historical conflict between Israel and Palestine as our case study in this thesis. The following show negotiation attempts made by different mediators. East Jerusalem would have fallen for the most part under Israeli sovereignty, with the exception of most suburbs with heavy non-Jewish populations surrounded by areas annexed to Israel.
President Arafat rejected this offer and did not propose a counter-offer. No tenable solution was crafted which would satisfy both Israeli and Palestinian demands, even under intense U. When President Barack Obama took office in January , he made peaceful settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict a top priority of his administration, appointing former Senator George Mitchell as his peace envoy.
She said that Israeli settlements and demolition of Arab homes in East Jerusalem were "unhelpful" to the peace process Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, —14 Israeli—Palestinian peace talks. Direct negotiations between the Palestinian Authority and the Israeli government have continued for many decades and remain a complicated issue to resolve to date which has attracted my attention for this study.
In other words my thesis is focused at the recognition and influence of culture at International conflict resolutions with study case of Israel and Palestine as historical conflicting nations that tapped my interest. The concepts examined in this thesis have many strategies under cultural recognition during the negotiation process throughout international relations. First and foremost, this thesis is an awareness-raising on cultural recognition and emphasis during conflict resolutions.
Its focus lies on creating public awareness as to why culture should be incorporated during the negotiation and mediation processes. It answers the questions of; what are the main cultural obstacles to achieve peace negotiations?
What are the mechanisms through which Israel and Palestine conflict can be resolved? Will Israel and Palestine gain peace and stability? And what is required of Israel and Palestine to facilitate negotiation process? The findings of this thesis will contribute academically to the study of this topic that is expanding though still in its initial levels. Despite challenges with the above example of Palestine and Israel, many scholars began to sense the importance of this topic in some years ago and began researching on cultural influence during negotiations which has not been taken seriously.
Politically, I hope to draw conclusions on how parties can improve their conflict resolution strategies in any inter-cultural negotiation scenario. Arbitrators would use the lessons learned from this study for communications during negotiations and organizations like the African Union, United Nations or United States, European Union that comprised of nationals of different cultural backgrounds can as well use the same strategies where at times they may disagree on how to address the conflicts they are trying to resolve.
One might also consider that the findings of this thesis could be used, if applied early in the conflict cycle to avoid certain cross-cultural conflicts all together. I will first build on existing theory from culture and conflict resolution, hence emerge and later diversify in order to roll on bench mark of my thesis that can conceptualize intercultural communication and involvement at all levels of negotiation and mediation scenarios.
As soon as I reach at this concept, I would then carry on with a probe of my concept. Alexander George described this as a preliminary study on relatively untested theories and hypotheses to determine whether more intensive and laborious testing is warranted. I will attempt to establish whether this concept and the preliminary hypotheses can be applied and hold up in a case study. At the end, I will interpret the results of this case study analysis to refine my concept. The conclusions thus contain some theoretical findings, policy recommendations, and recommendations for future research.
In other words, the focus is to come up with a stronghold for a future theory of inter-cultural communication and involvement at all levels of conflict resolution. To test my hypotheses, I have chosen historical and on-going conflict resolutions between Israel and Palestine. I will elaborate on multiple strategies of negotiation attempts surrounding this conflict to illustrate and test my hypotheses.
In simple terms and easy demonstration of the ideas I have put forward, this thesis as it will focus on the historical negotiations and mediation between Israel and Palestine as they offer a most likely case of maximum cultural mismatch. My independent ingredient is the negotiating and mediation behavior of the actors involved.
The independent variable in this study is the cultures of the actors involved. Intervening variables include but are not limited to relationships and agreements with other actors or interested parties outside the dispute, global political, social and economic pressures of the actors involved from different cultures. Besides that the participants involved from conflicting parties. This will give confidence to my hypothesis relevance in multicultural conflict resolution. This phrase can also mean the variety of human societies in an area.
Many theories have found themselves elaborating culture in four categories of political, strategic, organisational and global. Jeffrey W. Therefore if a nation is as a whole more conservative, then that attitude will also be reflected in its foreign policy.
Different scholars have different viewpoints in their theories of cultural diversity. In another viewpoint where culture is subdivided into many levels that look at them in pyramidal view from big to small one or vise-versa.
They include; 5. The civic culture is pluralistic and based on communication and persuasion, culture of consensus and diversity and culture that permits change but moderates it Almond and Verba , 8. Therefore this thesis equates the commonly used term culture and civic culture.
Given my personal experience of being outside African continent for the first time had me to battle with lots of adjustments in suiting to different cultural environment. For the purpose of this thesis, we shall therefore take up with all the above view points for understanding Civic Culture. That means Civic Culture is the variable set of ways in society that in many occasions regulate behavior through customs, norms, characters, belief, art, values, morals, laws, habits acquired by individual as part of a specific group.
Therefore belonging to a group, one has to comply with existing ways of living in that group. This involves moral judgments, political myths, beliefs and ideas about what makes a good society. In political culture, every aspect of a society which includes national and international is permitted. Therefore cultural aspects of a particular society in a political sphere always act in a certain way. According to International encyclopedia of social science, Political culture is the set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments which give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions that govern behavior in the political system.
Lucian W. Meaning the perceptions and attitudes comprise of their civic culture are developed in the political actions of the individual actors involved. In this thesis therefore we have found out about negotiation and mediation part of it.
One can think otherwise that many scholars refer only to political culture as playing a major role in conflict resolution referring to the negotiations and mediation attempts on historical conflict between Israel and Palestine. They therefore get to a democratic peace agreement over Gaza and West bank areas due to a common set of cultural practices of non-violence and international bodies like United Nations to facilitate the peace process of settlement.
Scholars explain continuity and changes in security policies and study to create a framework as to why policy options are influenced by nations. Strategic Culture therefore means a set of beliefs, attitudes and norms towards the use of military force often molded according to historical experience Chappel , p. Strategic Culture in this sense habitat around the collective ideas and values about the use of force are important constitutive factors in the design and execution of national security policies.
The influence of organizational culture and conflict on market orientation
Culture in World Politics pp Cite as. Conflict resolution in different societies reflects both particular and universal features. Specific understanding of and approaches to the disputing process are embedded within given cultural settings. This body of implicit, received truth is reflected both in actual behaviour and also in the language used by a society to talk about conflict. Every society has a vocabulary of specialized terms and expressions loaded with affective and metaphorical connotations.
The purpose of this paper is to show that a common language is one of the most important features of a diverse community. Human communication is based on features that describe an event and capture emotions, needs, interests and fears. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. Opara , asserted that People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides a repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world.
Using survey data from over corporate managers, a model of the mediating effect of conflict was examined. First, the model was tested using structural equation modeling, and then a series of linear regressions was used to confirm mediation. The study found that conflict mediated the relationship between culture and market orientation. The findings also suggested that conflict was positively associated with bureaucratic organizations and negatively associated with innovative and supportive organizations. The results suggested that innovative and supportive organizations were less likely to experience dysfunctional conflict, and thereby would be better able to maintain market orientation. The study offers a model that extended previous research on the relationship between organizational culture and market orientation by examining the mediating role of conflict.
What is the role of culture in conflicts? But most importantly, should we always take the single different cultural traditions into consideration when.
Language, culture and conflict resolution. A case of Kiswahili as a unifying language in Kenya
After years of relative neglect, culture is finally receiving due recognition as a key factor in the evolution and resolution of conflicts. With sophistication and lucidity, Culture and Conflict Resolution exposes these shortcomings and proposes an alternative conception in which culture is seen as dynamic and derivative of individual experience.
Conflict Resolution across Cultures: Bridging the Gap
What is the role of culture in conflict resolution? In particular it discusses third party interventions, and highlights two problem-solving workshop practitioners, Burton and Lederach. Ultimately, in any sort of intercultural conflict resolution, a cultural analysis is an irreducible part of the process. From game theory where rational actors make predictable choices within a perfectly understood negotiation , an analytical and experimentalist approach to conflict management has been developed within the academic world.
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Для урана используется ружейный детонатор, для плутония нужен взрыв. Это не числа, такие различия нас не касаются. - Работайте, - поторопил Фонтейн. На ВР последняя стена стала уже тоньше яичной скорлупы. Джабба поднял брови.
Директора АН Б дорого заплатили за осознание того факта, что двадцать шесть тысяч сотрудников не только огромная ценность, но и источник больших неприятностей. Все крупные провалы в сфере безопасности в истории агентства происходили внутри этого здания. В обязанности Мидж как эксперта по обеспечению внутренней безопасности входило наблюдение за всем, что творилось в стенах АНБ… в том числе и в кладовке столовой агентства. Бринкерхофф поднялся со своего места, словно стоя ему было легче защищаться, но Мидж уже выходила из его кабинета. - Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо.
Проследите, чтобы он вылетел домой немедленно. Смит кивнул: - Наш самолет в Малаге. - Он похлопал Беккера по спине.
Самая грязная ванна, какую мне доводилось видеть. И самый мерзкий пляж, покрытый острыми камнями.
Коммандер Тревор Стратмор - ее наставник и покровитель. Сьюзан многим ему обязана; потратить день на то, чтобы исполнить его поручение, - это самое меньшее, что он мог для нее сделать. К сожалению, утром все сложилось не так, как он планировал.
Он же в аэропорту. Где-то там, на летном поле, в одном из трех частных ангаров севильского аэропорта стоит Лирджет-60, готовый доставить его домой. Пилот сказал вполне определенно: У меня приказ оставаться здесь до вашего возвращения. Трудно даже поверить, подумал Беккер, что после всех выпавших на его долю злоключений он вернулся туда, откуда начал поиски.
- Почему. Стратмор сощурил. - А ты как думаешь.
Нуматака терпеть не мог вести дела подобным образом, он ненавидел, когда хозяином положения был кто-то. С самого начала его преследовала мысль, что звонки Северной Дакоты - это западня, попытка японских конкурентов выставить его дураком. Теперь его снова одолевали те же подозрения. Нуматака решил, что ему необходима дополнительная информация. Выскочив из кабинета, он повернул налево по главному коридору здания Нуматек.
Внешняя окружность была затуманена и казалась почти прозрачной. - У нас имеется пять уровней защиты, - объяснял Джабба. - Главный бастион, два набора пакетных фильтров для Протокола передачи файлов, Х-одиннадцать, туннельный блок и, наконец, окно авторизации справа от проекта Трюфель.
Да-да. - Сеньор, у нас нет рыжеволосых. У нас только настоящие андалузские красавицы. - Рыжие волосы, - повторил Беккер, понимая, как глупо выглядит.
Проверка на наличие вируса, - решительно сказал он себе, стараясь успокоиться.
Юбка девушки высоко задралась от ветра, но она не обращала на это ни малейшего внимания. Беккер рванулся к. Неужели все это происходит со мной? - подумал .
Но он не искал глазами убийцу. Жертва всегда ищет глазами убийцу. Она делает это инстинктивно. Фонтейна эти слова озадачили.
Его нижняя губа на мгновение оттопырилась, но заговорил он не. Слова, сорвавшиеся с его языка, были определенно произнесены на английском, но настолько искажены сильным немецким акцентом, что их смысл не сразу дошел до Беккера. - Проваливай и умри. Дэвид даже вздрогнул от неожиданности. - Простите.
Из размышлений об этом кошмаре его вывела Соши, подбежавшая к подиуму со свежей распечаткой. - Я кое-что нашла, сэр! - возбужденно сказала .