Processing And Presentation Of Data In Research Methodology Pdf

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processing and presentation of data in research methodology pdf

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While data analysis in qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many times analysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected and analyzed almost simultaneously. Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns in observations through the entire data collection phase Savenye, Robinson, The form of the analysis is determined by the specific qualitative approach taken field study, ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research and the form of the data field notes, documents, audiotape, videotape. An essential component of ensuring data integrity is the accurate and appropriate analysis of research findings. Improper statistical analyses distort scientific findings, mislead casual readers Shepard, , and may negatively influence the public perception of research.

Research Design and Methodology

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing , transforming , and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, and is used in different business, science, and social science domains. In today's business world, data analysis plays a role in making decisions more scientific and helping businesses operate more effectively. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on statistical modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information. EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data while CDA focuses on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses.

Data analysis is defined as a process of cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to discover useful information for business decision-making. The purpose of Data Analysis is to extract useful information from data and taking the decision based upon the data analysis. A simple example of Data analysis is whenever we take any decision in our day-to-day life is by thinking about what happened last time or what will happen by choosing that particular decision. This is nothing but analyzing our past or future and making decisions based on it. For that, we gather memories of our past or dreams of our future. So that is nothing but data analysis.

What is Data Processing?

There are a number of approaches used in this research method design. The purpose of this chapter is to design the methodology of the research approach through mixed types of research techniques. The research approach also supports the researcher on how to come across the research result findings. In this chapter, the general design of the research and the methods used for data collection are explained in detail. It includes three main parts. The first part gives a highlight about the dissertation design.

Data analysis

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This works best for simple observations, such as: "When viewed by light microscopy, all of the cells appeared dead. There are BI reporting tools that have predictive analytics options already implemented within them, but also made user-friendly so that you don't need to calculate anything manually or perform the robust and advanced analysis yourself. Diagrams are attractive. And when it comes to knowing how to make data analysis, this kind of collaborative approach is essential.

Data Collection, Processing and Analysis

Data Collection Methods

Acquiring data : Acquisition involves collecting or adding to the data holdings. There are several methods of acquiring data:. Data processing: A series of actions or steps performed on data to verify, organize, transform, integrate, and extract data in an appropriate output form for subsequent use. Methods of processing must be rigorously documented to ensure the utility and integrity of the data. Data Analysis involves actions and methods performed on data that help describe facts, detect patterns, develop explanations and test hypotheses. This includes data quality assurance, statistical data analysis, modeling, and interpretation of results. In case the research data is made accessible, one has to prepare the data set for opening up.

Without data processing, companies limit their access to the very data that can hone their competitive edge and deliver critical business insights. Data processing occurs when data is collected and translated into usable information. Usually performed by a data scientist or team of data scientists, it is important for data processing to be done correctly as not to negatively affect the end product, or data output. Data processing starts with data in its raw form and converts it into a more readable format graphs, documents, etc. Read Now. Collecting data is the first step in data processing.

Coding of data refers to the process of transforming collected information or observations to a set of meaningful, cohesive categories. It is a process of summarizing and re-presenting data in order to provide a systematic account of the recorded or observed phenomenon. Data refer to a wide range of empirical objects such as historical documents, newspaper articles, TV programming, field notes, interview or focus group transcripts, pictures, face-to-face conversations, social media messages e. Codes are concepts that link data with theory. They can either be predefined by the researcher or emerge inductively from the coding process. By coding data, researchers classify and attach conceptual labels to empirical objects under study in order to organize and interpret Show page numbers Download PDF.


presentation of qualitative data in the texts of reports/. scientific papers. The paper has and control over the research process. It includes such.


different methods of data presentation pdf

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