Three Hundred Ramayanas Five Examples And Three Thoughts On Translations Pdf

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Throughout Indian history, many authors and performers have produced, and many patrons have supported, diverse tellings of the story of the exiled prince Rama, who rescues his abducted wife by battling the demon king who has imprisoned her. The contributors to this volume focus on these "many" Ramayanas. While most scholars continue to rely on Valmiki's Sanskrit Ramayana as the authoritative version of the tale, the contributors to this volume do not.

Access options available:. Edited by Paula Richman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Its aim is to present to the noninitiate the rich tradition of the Rama stories Rama katha in modern South India. The primary audience for the book is the North American classroom, where Richman sees her collection being used to introduce students to the narrative and religious diversity of India.

A.K. Ramanujan: ’Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation’

Three hundred? Three thousand? At the end of some Ramayanas, a question is sometimes asked: How many Ramayanas have there been? Twenty four years later, the essay, Three Hundred Ramayanas:Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation , finds itself at the centre of a fresh controversy.

It has been dropped from the history syllabus of Delhi University after protests from hardline Hindu groups and a number of teachers. They believe the many versions recounted in the essay offend Hindu beliefs. As Dr Ramanujan tells the story, the number of versions of the epic which have existed in India and the rest of south-east Asia for the past 2, years or more is simply "astonishing". Though Valmiki's Sanskrit poem Ramayana is the most influential among Indians, Ram's story is available in at least 22 languages, including Chinese, Laotian, Thai and Tibetan.

Many of these languages have more than one telling of the epic. Twenty-five or more renditions of the epic in various genres - epics, poems, mythological stories - have been in Sanskrit alone, wrote Dr Ramanujan. There are sculptures, mask plays, puppet plays and shadow plays around the epic. One researcher, Camille Bulcke , counted tellings of the epic. Millions of Indians have read and "watched" the epic in a popular comic book and a hit TV series.

I remember the soap nearly shutting down India on Sunday mornings in the mids - streets would be deserted, shops would be closed and people would bathe and garland their TV sets before the serial began. Hindu groups first protested against the inclusion of Dr Ramanujan's essay in the syllabus in At that time, the head of Delhi University's history department was also assaulted by some hot heads.

But the teachers had stuck to their guns and refused to drop the essay. Three years later, bowing to renewed pressure, the university's top academic body decided to take the essay out of the history syllabus, though, reportedly, a minority of teachers protested against the decision.

One of them, Abha Dev Habib, described the decision as "very regressive and unfortunate". Journalist Sugata Srinivasaraju suggests that the groups love the "soap telling" of the epic poem which iconises Ram and "want the narrative to retain the structure and simplicity of a bedtime story so that you fall asleep in consent and total belief as you listen to it".

Literary critic Nilanjana S Ray writes in her blog that this may "have been part of the general climate of intolerance and the battle over who had the right to tell the country's history and its myths that was part of the Indian landscape between the s and the s".

She talks about how self-appointed censors wilfully scan texts for "offensive" phrases. Ms Ray is correct. Last year Mumbai University withdrew Rohinton Mistry's novel Such a Long Journey - shortlisted for the Booker Prize in - from its curriculum after the nationalist Shiv Sena staged protests against its "derogatory" references to party members. Mr Mistry said the move was "a sorry spectacle of book-burning". Gujarat's ruling Hindu nationalist politicians had been told that the book sensationalised Gandhi's friendship with a German man, who may have been homosexual.

All this was far from true, but the ban stayed. And everybody remembers how India swiftly banned Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses in because some clerics said it had insulted Islam. The Indian-born Rushdie had said he was "hurt and humiliated" by the decision. The attacks on freedom of expression by the right-wing fringe extend beyond India.

This July, a screening of Sita Sings the Blues, an award-winning take on the epic by American animator Nina Paley , in New York was cancelled after a local Hindu group bombarded the organisers with hundreds of protest emails.

A man attending a lecture by American Indologist Wendy Doniger in London in threw an egg at her. He was apparently incensed "by the sexual thrust of her paper on one of our most sacred epics". Salil Tripathi, who has written a book on Hindu nationalist attacks on free expression, finds Hindu groups engaging in "competitive intolerance" after realising that other faiths are able to "attract attention by challenging text, interpretations, films, books, music and imagery".

Many would agree with this. But the ease with which attacks on free expression can be mounted in a country which never tires of calling itself the world's largest democracy betrays a weak and inffectual state, which often fails to respect and protect dissenters. That, many believe, means mischievous, trouble-making minorities can easily subdue and attack dissent. Popular epic. So why have the right-wing groups railed against Dr Ramanujan's essay?

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On Ramanujan and the Ramayana

Three hundred? Three thousand? At the end of some Ramayanas, a question is sometimes asked: How many Ramayanas have there been? Twenty four years later, the essay, Three Hundred Ramayanas:Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation , finds itself at the centre of a fresh controversy. It has been dropped from the history syllabus of Delhi University after protests from hardline Hindu groups and a number of teachers. They believe the many versions recounted in the essay offend Hindu beliefs.

Marvels & Tales

If this is the case, then Hindu fundamentalist groups like the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad ABVP should have been rabble-rousing against these centuries-old texts instead of an academic essay that simply and accurately describes them. His words provide a clue as to what the issue is really about. No apex Ramayan So Ramanujan in his essay was suggesting that there was no apex Ramayan that can be held sacrosanct. But what concerns Mukherjee more is not so much the shenanigans of the Hindutva brigade as the manner in which Delhi University DU capitulated in the face of those shenanigans.

A K Ramanujan Three Hundred Ramayanas.pdf

Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation

Ramanujan How many Ramayanas? Three hundred? Three thousand? At the end of some Ramayanas , a question is sometimes asked: How many Ramayanas have there been? And there are stories that answer the question. Here is one.

June 22, They did this by trashing the department of history and physically assaulting the head of the department ramayanas by ak ramanujam pdf wondered the late poet and scholar AK Ramanujan of the Indian epic in Twenty four years later, the essay, Three Hundred Ramayanas:Five. First, your essay must explain one of the cultural references in the Ramayana. The question of folk traditions of the Ramayana are more difficult to address because we move into a different realm, from the written text to orality. Ramanujan, far from being malicious about the texts he discusses, obviously loves them Narayan also published travel books, volumes of essays, the memoir My Days, and the retold legends Gods, Demons, and Others, The Ramayana, and The Mahabharata. Thoughts on Translation.

The essay was a required reading on Delhi University 's syllabus for history undergraduates from —7 onward. On October 9, , the Academic Council of the University decided to remove the essay from the BA curriculum for its next academic cycle. This action of the Academic Council attracted a lot of attention and several people viewed this as an act of unwarranted censorship. It seeks to demonstrate factually how the story of Rama has undergone numerous variations while being transmitted across different languages, societies, geographical regions, religions, and historical periods. The count of Ramayanas in the title of the essay is based on a work of Camille Bulcke [1] and it has been pointed out that it is an underestimate of the actual count.


on the K2mkyuncl and the ~ahdbhirata, and the other three essays on Three Thoughts on Translation in South and Southeast Asia over the past twenty-five hundred years or In another tradition of the Jain Ramayanas, Sit2 is his.


'Humiliated'

Know more. Ramanujan, after a brilliant academic career in India, got his Phd in linguistics in from Indiana University in the U. He taught in several universities in that country till his death in july, Ramanujan edited by Vinay Dharwadker. The article, therefore, has been in the public domain for over 17 years. It appears that this and certain other articles which were also listed in the readings in the published curriculum were separately photocopied and compiled in a spiral bound volume, which was purchased by petitioner No. The name of Dr.

300 ramayana essay pdf

Translation by Sandeep Balakrishna. Ramanujan, ed. The writers are reliable, honest, extremely knowledgeable, and the results are always top of the class!

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2 Comments

  1. Encarna C. 01.06.2021 at 04:31

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  2. Laureana A. 07.06.2021 at 21:11

    The essay was a required reading on Delhi Universitys syllabus for history undergraduates from —7 onward.

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