Dependent And Independent Variables In Research Methodology Pdf

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The purpose of all research is to describe and explain variance in the world.

Independent and Dependent Variables

It may change from group to group, person to person, or even within one person over time. There are six common variable types:.

For example, if the independent variable is the use or non-use of a new language teaching procedure, then the dependent variable might be students' scores on a test of the content taught using that procedure. In other words, the variation in the dependent variable depends on the variation in the independent variable. This "control" may involve manipulating existing variables e.

Whatever the case may be, the researcher expects that the independent variable s will have some effect on or relationship with the dependent variables.

In language learning and teaching, they are usually inside the subjects' heads, including various language learning processes which the researcher cannot observe. For example, if the use of a particular teaching technique is the independent variable and mastery of the objectives is the dependent variable, then the language learning processes used by the subjects are the intervening variables.

Unlike extraneous variables, moderator variables are measured and taken into consideration. Typical moderator variables in TESL and language acquisition research when they are not the major focus of the study include the sex, age, culture, or language proficiency of the subjects. Language learning and teaching are very complex processes. It is not possible to consider every variable in a single study.

Variables that have been controlled in this way are called control variables. Extraneous variables are dangerous. They may damage a study's validity, making it impossible to know whether the effects were caused by the independent and moderator variables or some extraneous factor.

If they cannot be controlled, extraneous variables must at least be taken into consideration when interpreting results.

Independent and dependent variables

To properly identify the key differences between dependent and independent variables, we need to first understand what variables are. Although the meaning may slightly vary depending on how and in which field it is being used, it points to the same thing—especially in the field of mathematical modelling, statistical modelling and experimental sciences. Generally, a variable is a character, number, or quantity that can take different values over time. Variables are classified into 2 main types, namely; dependent and independent variables. This classification is made based on the variable's ability to change without depending on another variable.

It may change from group to group, person to person, or even within one person over time. There are six common variable types:. For example, if the independent variable is the use or non-use of a new language teaching procedure, then the dependent variable might be students' scores on a test of the content taught using that procedure. In other words, the variation in the dependent variable depends on the variation in the independent variable. This "control" may involve manipulating existing variables e. Whatever the case may be, the researcher expects that the independent variable s will have some effect on or relationship with the dependent variables. In language learning and teaching, they are usually inside the subjects' heads, including various language learning processes which the researcher cannot observe.

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Page. 1. Independent and Dependent Variables. Introduction: The initial step in conducting research is to articulate a testable hypothesis and draw a conclusion.


Independent and Dependent Variable Examples

To properly identify the key differences between dependent and independent variables, we need to first understand what variables are. Although the meaning may slightly vary depending on how and in which field it is being used, it points to the same thing—especially in the field of mathematical modelling, statistical modelling and experimental sciences. Generally, a variable is a character, number, or quantity that can take different values over time. Variables are classified into 2 main types, namely; dependent and independent variables.

Published on May 20, by Lauren Thomas. Revised on September 18, In research, variables are any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, species, or exam score. In scientific research, we often want to study the effect of one variable on another one.

In scientific terms, a variable is something that researchers are studying. Every scientific experiment involves at least one independent variable and one dependent variable. Discover the difference between these two types of variables and review several examples of each type.

Independent variable is complementary to dependent variable. These two concepts are used primarily in their mathematical sense, meaning that the value of a dependent variable changes in response to that of an independent variable.

By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Variables are given a special name that only applies to experimental investigations.

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Independent Variables Defined

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