Habermas Knowledge And Human Interests Pdf
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- Habermas, Nietzsche, and Cognitive Perspective
- Cognitive Interests and Self-Reflection
- Jürgen Habermas (1929—)
- Jürgen Habermas (1929—)
His early work was devoted to the public sphere, to modernization, and to critiques of trends in philosophy and politics. He then slowly began to articulate theories of rationality, meaning, and truth.
Habermas pp Cite as. In his inaugural lecture 1 Habermas presented a programme of a philosophy of emancipation, according to which our knowledge is guided by our interest in emancipation, our interest in intersubjective communication, as well as our interest in technical mastery over nature. Already, at that time, Habermas indicated that a proof of the thesis that our knowledge depends on our interests was not to be given in the form of a systematic argument but rather by way of a historical appraisal of the positivistic and historicist philosophy of science.
Habermas, Nietzsche, and Cognitive Perspective
Table of Contents 9. Habermas is one of today's best-known critical theorists, and he finds his way among the foregoing foundational issues by way of his epistemology about human interests, and the knowledge, medium, and science associated with each. Carr and Kemmis , p. Ingram and Simon-Ingram summarize Habermas's thinking about the sciences and the interests as follows:. The empirical-analytic sciences incorporate an objectifying experimental method that constitutes nature as a lawful system of interconnected facts.
The historical-hermeneutic sciences incorporate an interpretive method that constitutes social reality as a symbolic text comprising meaningful actions, artifacts, and events. The method of subjective understanding refines a prescientific mode of communication activity necessitated by a practical interest in coordinating action and establishing a common identity or mutual understanding between persons.
Finally, the critical social sciences incorporate a reflective method that combines both objectifying causal explanatory and interpretive procedures in determining which social regularities are invariant and which are not. The critique of ideology refines a prescientific mode of critical self-examination necessitated by an emancipatory interest in achieving freedom from domination p.
So, critical social sciences help individuals understand how their aims and purposes are subordinated to technical and practical interests such as science and technology. In this way, the critical sciences help people act to relieve oppression. A major critique of Habermas's theories has been that they do not convincingly show they are free of ideologies and better than the empirical-analytical or hermeneutic sciences they wish to ameliorate.
Habermas's response to these criticisms has been to develop his theory of communicative action, aspects of which are described succinctly by Ingram and Simon-Ingram :. Communication speaking is the primary vehicle by which personal and social identity is shaped and mutual understanding regarding a shared world is brought about.
Language, Habermas argues, has evolved to the point where one can distinguish propositional descriptive , interpersonal prescriptive , and personal expressive uses.
In everyday speech geared toward facilitating interaction For example, whenever I promise to do something I simultaneously assert describe something to be done, prescribe to myself an interpersonal obligation, and express a personal intention. Most important, what I say describe, prescribe, and express is tacitly accompanied by validity claims: to the truth of what I assert to be the case, the rightness of what I prescribe, and the sincerity of what I express p.
The validity of any claims about truth, rightness, and authenticity is tested through argumentation, and only those arguments that meet or could meet with the approval of all affected by them can be considered acceptable.
Suitable conditions require that, among other things, there be no coercion p. See also lhde, , on the lifeworld.
Habermas says knowledge associated with the lifeworld "is an implicit knowledge that can not be represented in an infinite number of propositions; it is a holistically structured knowledge, the basic elements of which intrinsically define one another, and it is a knowledge that does not stand at our disposition, inasmuch as we can not make it conscious and place it in doubt as we please" p.
Though rational communicative action is thought of as a good thing, rationalization is questionable. Habermas argues that rationalization occurs when aspects of the lifeworld are made explicit. As rationalization increases, societies become more complex, and mechanisms are developed to reduce the risks and failures involved in coordinating mutual understanding. These mechanisms are "delinguistified steering media" such as prestige, influence, power, money and, sometimes, modem electronic mass media, the authors of this chapter would contend.
Moreover, media such as money and power connect communication into complex networks for which no one feels responsible p. Environmental destruction and the overbureaucratization of educational systems can be explained as a result of capitalist growth and a "misuse" of power, which occur because of the false perception that only rational management must be applied to the environment and education p.
The greatest difficulty is "an elitist splitting off of expert cultures from contexts of communicative action in daily life" p. He claims that some media can help mutual understanding when they encourage a trust in knowledge: "Media of this kind cannot uncouple interaction from the lifeworld context Neither does Habermas altogether reject the rationality of the Enlightenment and the empirical-analytical sciences; like earlier critical theorists, he wants to develop a critical social science that lies somewhere between philosophy and science p.
He believes that discovering universal knowledge, especially emancipatory knowledge, is possible through rational communicative action, though be can't say exactly when or how.
This is important because, as we shall see shortly, this belief in universals runs contrary to the beliefs of many postmodernist, feminist, and deconstructionist theorists. AECT toll-free Search this Handbook for:. Foundations of Critical Theory. Habermas's Epistemology. Critical Theory and Technolgy.
Critical Theory and Education. Critical Theory of Educational Technology. Topics in Critical Theory of Educational Technology. Problems with Critical Theories of Education. Problems with Critical Theories of Educational Technology. Being Critical Educational Technologists. Why Appropriate Critical Theory?
Instrumental casual explanation. Empirical-analytical or natural sciences. Practical understanding. Hermeneutic or "interpretive" sciences. Emancipatory reflection. Critical sciences.
Cognitive Interests and Self-Reflection
His philosophical roots lie in the Frankfurt School form of neo-Marxism, 1 also known as critical theory. Critical theory should be understood in opposition to traditional theory, which is exemplified in the Cartesian approach that dominates the modern discussion. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
Jürgen Habermas (1929—)
Jurgen Habermas is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jürgen Habermas (1929—)
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Table of Contents 9. Habermas is one of today's best-known critical theorists, and he finds his way among the foregoing foundational issues by way of his epistemology about human interests, and the knowledge, medium, and science associated with each. Carr and Kemmis , p. Ingram and Simon-Ingram summarize Habermas's thinking about the sciences and the interests as follows:.
He criticizes Sigmund Freud , arguing that psychoanalysis is a branch of the humanities rather than a science, and provides a critique of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It received positive reviews, which identified it as forming part of an important body of work. However, critics have found Habermas's attempt to discuss the relationship between knowledge and human interests unsatisfactory, and his work obscure in style. Some commentators have found his discussion of Freud valuable, while others have questioned his conclusions. Habermas discusses the history of positivism, aiming to provide an analysis of "the connections between knowledge and human interests. He states that psychoanalysis occupies an important place as an example within his framework.
Попав по назначению, программа фиксировала свое местонахождение в Интернете и передавала его в АНБ, после чего бесследно уничтожала маяк. Начиная с того дня, анонимные переадресующие компании перестали быть для АНБ источником серьезных неприятностей. - Вы сможете его найти? - спросил Стратмор. - Конечно. Почему вы не позвонили мне раньше. - Честно говоря, - нахмурился Стратмор, - я вообще не собирался этого делать. Мне не хотелось никого в это впутывать.
Сьюзан не любила бывать в шифровалке в неурочные часы, поскольку в таких случаях неизменно чувствовала себя запертой в клетке с гигантским зверем из научно-фантастического романа. Она ускорила шаги, чтобы побыстрее оказаться в кабинете шефа. К рабочему кабинету Стратмора, именуемому аквариумом из-за стеклянных стен, вела узкая лестница, поднимавшаяся по задней стене шифровалки. Взбираясь по решетчатым ступенькам, Сьюзан смотрела на массивную дубовую дверь кабинета, украшенную эмблемой АНБ, на которой был изображен могучий орел, терзающий когтями старинную отмычку. За этой дверью находился один из самых великих людей, которых ей довелось знать. Пятидесятишестилетний коммандер Стратмор, заместитель оперативного директора АНБ, был для нее почти как отец. Именно он принимал ее на работу, именно он сделал АНБ для нее родным домом.
Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать.
Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо.
Она зажмурилась. - Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни.
Уж не уехала ли она в Стоун-Мэнор без. Раздался сигнал, после которого надо было оставить сообщение. - Привет, это Дэвид.