Medicinal Plants And Herbs Pdf

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medicinal plants and herbs pdf

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Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents.

Here are some common medicinal herbs. Most herbs have not been completely tested to see how well they work or to see if they interact with other herbs, supplements, medicines, or foods. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions.

List of plants used in herbalism

Here are some common medicinal herbs. Most herbs have not been completely tested to see how well they work or to see if they interact with other herbs, supplements, medicines, or foods. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions. Considered by some to be a cure-all, chamomile is commonly used in the U. It is used in Europe for wound healing and to reduce inflammation or swelling. Few studies have looked at how well it works for any condition.

Chamomile is used as a tea or applied as a compress. It may increase drowsiness caused by medicines or other herbs or supplements. Chamomile may interfere with the way the body uses some medicines, causing too high a level of the medicine in some people.

Chamomile for the skin topical may be used to treat skin irritation from radiation cancer treatments. Chamomile in capsule form may be used to control vomiting during chemotherapy. Echinacea is commonly used to treat or prevent colds, flu, and infections, and for wound healing. Some studies do show some benefit of using echinacea for upper respiratory infections. Short-term use is advised because other studies have also shown that long-term use can affect the body's immune system.

Always check with your healthcare provider about any interactions with medicines that you are already taking. People allergic to plants in the daisy family may be more likely to have an allergic reaction to echinacea. Feverfew was traditionally used to treat fevers. It is now commonly used to prevent migraines and treat arthritis.

Some research has shown that certain feverfew preparations can prevent migraines. Side effects include mouth ulcers if the leaves are chewed and digestive irritation.

People who suddenly stop taking feverfew for migraines may have their headaches return. Feverfew should not be used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines because these medicines may change how well feverfew works. It should not be used with warfarin or other anticoagulant medicines. Garlic has been used all over the world in cooking and for its many medicinal properties. The compounds isolated from garlic have been shown to have antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

These properties may play a role in the belief that garlic helps lower cholesterol and blood pressure. Unfortunately, the evidence is conflicting. The FDA considers garlic safe. But it can increase the risk of bleeding and should not be used with warfarin, a blood thinner.

For the same reason, large amounts should not be taken before dental procedures or surgery. Ginger is most commonly known as an herb for easing nausea and motion sickness. Research suggests that ginger may relieve the nausea caused by pregnancy and chemotherapy. Other areas under investigation in the use of ginger are in surgery and as an anticancer agent. It's wide range of actions may be due in part to its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Reported side effects may include bloating, gas, heartburn, and nausea in certain people.

Ginkgo leaf extract has been used to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, and tinnitus. It is also used to improve memory and to prevent dementia and other brain disorders.

Some studies have supported its slight effectiveness. But exactly how gingko works isn't understood. Only extract from leaves should be used.

Seeds contain ginkgo toxin. This toxin can cause seizures and, in large amounts, death. Because some information suggests that ginkgo can increase the risk of bleeding, it should not be used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, anticoagulants, anticonvulsant medicines, or tricyclic antidepressants. Ginseng is used as a tonic and aphrodisiac, even as a cure-all. Research is uncertain how well it works, partly because of the difficulty in defining "vitality" and "quality of life.

Side effects are high blood pressure and tachycardia. It's considered safe by the FDA. But it shouldn't be used with warfarin, heparin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, estrogens, corticosteroids, or digoxin. People with diabetes should not use ginseng. Goldenseal is used to treat diarrhea and eye and skin irritations.

It is also used as an antiseptic. It is also an unproven treatment for colds. Goldenseal contains berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine.

Studies have shown that goldenseal is effective for diarrhea. But it's not recommended because it can be poisonous in high doses. Milk thistle is used to treat liver conditions and high cholesterol, and to reduce the growth of cancer cells.

Milk thistle is a plant that originated in the Mediterranean region. It has been used for many different illnesses over the last several thousand years, especially liver problems. Study results are uncertain about the actual benefits of milk thistle for liver disease. Saint John's wort is used as an antidepressant. Studies have shown that it has a small effect on mild to moderate depression over a period of about 12 weeks.

But it is not clear if it is effective for severe depression. A side effect is sensitivity to light, but this is only noted in people taking large doses of the herb. John's has been shown to cause dangerous and possibly deadly interactions with commonly used medicines. It is very important to always talk with your healthcare provider before using this herb. Saw palmetto is used to treat urine symptoms from benign prostatic hypertrophy BPH.

But recent studies have not found it to be effective for this condition. Side effects are digestive upset and headache, both mild. Valerian is used to treat sleeplessness and to reduce anxiety. Research suggests that valerian may be a helpful sleep aid, but the evidence is not consistent to confirm it.

In the U. As with any medicinal herb, always talk with your healthcare provider before taking it. Search Encyclopedia. Chamomile Flower Considered by some to be a cure-all, chamomile is commonly used in the U.

Echinacea Leaf, stalk, root Echinacea is commonly used to treat or prevent colds, flu, and infections, and for wound healing.

Feverfew Leaf Feverfew was traditionally used to treat fevers. Garlic Cloves, root Garlic has been used all over the world in cooking and for its many medicinal properties. Ginger Root Ginger is most commonly known as an herb for easing nausea and motion sickness. Gingko Leaf Ginkgo leaf extract has been used to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, and tinnitus. Ginseng Root Ginseng is used as a tonic and aphrodisiac, even as a cure-all.

Goldenseal Root, rhizome Goldenseal is used to treat diarrhea and eye and skin irritations. Milk thistle Fruit Milk thistle is used to treat liver conditions and high cholesterol, and to reduce the growth of cancer cells.

Saint John's wort Flower, leaf Saint John's wort is used as an antidepressant. Saw palmetto Fruit Saw palmetto is used to treat urine symptoms from benign prostatic hypertrophy BPH. Valerian Root Valerian is used to treat sleeplessness and to reduce anxiety.

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Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. Ever since ancient times, in search for rescue for their disease, the people looked for drugs in nature. Until the advent of iatrochemistry in 16th century, plants had been the source of treatment and prophylaxis.

Medicinal plants

Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain.

This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias , quinine from the cinchona , morphine and codeine from the poppy , and digoxin from the foxglove.

Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. It is the use of plants for medicinal purposes, and the study of such uses. Now a days, herb refers to any part of the plant like fruit, seed, stem, bark, flower, leaf, stigma or a root, as well as a non-woody plant.

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