An Introduction To Foreign Language Learning And Teaching Keith Johnson Pdf
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- Keith Johnson (linguist)
- Second Language Learning and Language Teaching
- Expertise in Second Language Learning and Teaching
- Methods of Foreign Language Teaching in the 19th and 20th Century
Theorists and practitioners in our profession often seem to live in different worlds. Books that bridge the gap, such as those by Harmer , Cook , or Macaro , consequently perform a valuable function and are deservedly popular.
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Keith Johnson (linguist)
Teaching Methods and Approaches 3. During the history of foreign language teaching many methods and approaches have been developed to teach students language competence and performance. In this respect more or less successful techniques have been developed. Literature often distinguishes between methods and approaches used in language teaching. According to Richards and Rodgers, methods are teaching systems that are specific about teaching techniques and the roles of learners and teachers.
They do not allow interpretation and are acquired by the teachers through training. Beginning with the Grammar Translation method and ending with Humanistic approaches, this essay will focus on a couple of the main foreign language teaching methods and approaches in the 19th and 20th century. First it will be described how language teaching approaches and method can be analysed. Then some techniques will be explained.
Here the focus will be on the main principles of the techniques and their effect on the learner. From some minor methods and approaches only central aspects will be considered. A language teaching method can be defined according to a couple of characteristics.
First the basic ideas of a method should be found out. A behaviourist theory for instance, demands less engagement of the mind than a mentalist view does. It is also important to find out, if the approach is deductive or inductive. A deductive method gives the learner a rule first which is then demonstrated in examples. When the method is inductive the learners deduce the rule from examples they are given. In most cases the rule is stated at the end of the sequence but sometimes it is never given clearly.
Johnson then suggests to investigate how much the native language L1 is used in the classroom and if it is allowed at all. The sixth question is about, which skills are being developed. There are the spoken skills listening, speaking and the written skills reading, writing.
It has to be investigated if realistic language is used or if the student learns a language that will never enable him to communicate competently in the foreign language L2. The investigation of the teaching methods in the following paragraphs will mainly rely on the points explained above. Sometimes other features will be added and some of the above ideas will not be considered.
The Grammar-Translation Method was developed in the early to mid nineteenth century. First a grammatical rule is explained and examples are given. Then the learners get a bilingual vocabulary list which they should learn by heart.
The lists often contain complex constructions which also should be learned with their translations.
These constructions can contain sentences like: I see myself, you see yourself, he sees himself etc. Afterwards translation exercises sentences and whole passages from L1 to L2 and vice versa are done. This method requires the engagement of mind very much. Because first the rules are stated and then examples are given the students learn the grammar deductively.
These explanations are entirely given in the native language, hence L1 is very much used in the classroom. Besides that many translation tasks are given to the learner. In this method the foreign language FL is approached through L1.
Another aspect of this method is that it mainly concentrates on written language. The reason for that is partly because Latin and Greek were not spoken and because written language seemed more suitable for acadamic use.
One can also recognize that the language taught in this method is not very authentic because here the focus is on grammar and on written language, not on communication. Example sentences are used to demonstrate particular grammatical problems and not intended to be used in conversation, hence they are very unreal.
An example for manic interrogation is the following: . Not yet, wait a moment, please. What do you study at school? I study history and geography, and my sisters study music and drawing.
Ordinarily we dine at five, but today we dine a little later, because we are waiting for our uncle, who will arrive from Naples. What do you admire in this landscape? I admire all in it. Do you play an instrument? Do your sisters sing? They sing a little. Why do you blame your school-fellows? Because they are not diligent at school. What does it matter to you, if they are diligent or not at school or elsewhere?
Mind your own business. GT mainly concentrates on form not on meaning and the learners have to read and write a lot. The method is dominated by giving grammatical rules to the learner. The sentences and texts used in the lessons serve to demonstrate these rules. Hence the learners try to translate each single word and to figure out the grammatical problem without understanding the message of the text.
Besides that, the selected passages often are boring for the students. Eventually the learners will not be able to enter a proper conversation in the foreign language, because they get ready-made chunks of language that represent grammatical rules and that are to be learned by heart. Hence it is difficult for them to build sentences freely. Besides that, there is payed to much attention to the written skills, in contrary to the spoken ones.
Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language. K B Katharina Baron Author. Add to cart. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Characteristics of a Language Teaching Method 3.
Conclusion Bibliography 1. Introduction During the history of foreign language teaching many methods and approaches have been developed to teach students language competence and performance. Characteristics of a Language Teaching Method A language teaching method can be defined according to a couple of characteristics. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching , 2nd ed. New York: CUP, , Sign in to write a comment. Read the ebook. Teaching Composition Writing in Engli The Importance of Teaching English Vo Critical Concepts in Foreign Language Teaching English as a Foreign Languag Multiliteracies in the Foreign Langua Foreign Language Didactics at Cadi Ay The Teaching of Vocabulary in the Pri Motivation and Foreign Language Teach Teaching Collocations in Foreign Lang Productive word-formation adjectives The Efficacy of Foreign Language Teac Internship: Teaching English as a For Creative Writing in Foreign Language The Purpose of Intercultural Learning Teaching Reading in English as a Fore Foreign Language Teaching and Learnin Politeness in the Foreign Language-Cl A Preliminary Analysis of the Enlight Publish now - it's free.
Second Language Learning and Language Teaching
View larger. Request a copy. Alternative formats. An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching presents an engaging, student-friendly guide to the fields of foreign language learning and teaching. Aimed at students beginning their study of these fields, the book provides essential background information and deals with language learning and teaching in a clear and comprehensible way.
An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching presents an engaging, student-friendly guide to the fields of ByKeith Johnson.
Expertise in Second Language Learning and Teaching
Teaching Methods and Approaches 3. During the history of foreign language teaching many methods and approaches have been developed to teach students language competence and performance. In this respect more or less successful techniques have been developed.
Methods of Foreign Language Teaching in the 19th and 20th Century
Communicative Language Teaching. The origins of Communicative Language Teaching CLT are to be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late s. Until then, Situational Language represented the major British approach to teaching English as a foreign language. In Situational Language Teaching, language was taught by practicing basic structures in meaningful situation-based activities. British applied linguists emphasized another fundamental dimension of language that was inadequately addressed in current approaches to language teaching at that time - the functional and communicative potential of language.
Table of contents
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The book is full of stimulating activities and ideas for reading and will be successful in prompting teachers to be both critical and reflective. The book is also full of good questions and useful activities which will help its readers become reflective and efficient language teachers.
Ты займешься Третьим узлом. Сотрешь всю электронную почту Хейла. Все, что относится к его переписке с Танкадо, где упоминается Цифровая крепость. - Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла.
Через несколько секунд двенадцатитонная стальная махина начала поворачиваться. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями, но они упрямо возвращали ее к .
Стратмор сменил положение. Вцепившись в левую створку, он тянул ее на себя, Сьюзан толкала правую створку в противоположном направлении. Через некоторое время им с огромным трудом удалось расширить щель до одного фута. - Не отпускай, - сказал Стратмор, стараясь изо всех сил.
Северная Дакота. - Северная Дакота. Разумеется, это кличка.