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Grounded Theory Research: Procedures, Canons and Evaluative Criteria

Jump to navigation. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research approach that attempts to develop theories of understanding based on data from the real world. Unlike some other forms of qualitative inquiry, grounded theory attempts to go beyond rich description which it also strives for to an explanation of the phenomena of interest.

The second key word is grounded. For example, if one wished to derive a grounded theory about the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning, one would gather many kinds of data from persons who had grown up amid child abuse, and would build the theory of how it affects adult development on the information obtained from those people. The primary tools of discovery are interviews and observations.

However, grounded theory goes beyond the descriptive and interpretive goals and is aimed at building theories. The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive theories that are grounded in based on reality, that is, grounded in the data collected from people actually involved in the issues under investigation. A grounded theory is one that is uncovered, developed, and conditionally confirmed through collecting and making sense of data related to the issue at hand.

The hope is that such theories will lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon of interest and to ideas of exerting some control over the phenomenon. The use of literature also differs in the grounded theory approach.

There is a recommendation against knowing the literature too well before using this approach because knowing the categories, classifications, and conclusions of previous researchers may constrain your creativity in finding new formulas. See Grounded Theory Introduction. The dominant methods of data collection in grounded theory research are interviews usually audio-taped , participant and non-participant observations, conversations recorded in dairies, field notes, descriptions of comparative instances, and personal experience.

As mentioned, the participants in a grounded theory study often will be interviewed more than once, and asked to reflect on and refine the preliminary conclusions drawn by the researcher. The methods of doing these forms of data collection do not differ markedly from similar methods across all qualitative approaches. As mentioned, however, grounded theorists sometimes avoid too much study of the extant literature on their topic before going into the field, in hopes that they will not be biased by previous conjectures and data about the topic.

It is their aim to allow the data to teach them and guide their analysis into a rich explanation. Because grounded theory goes beyond the descriptive and interpretive goals of many other qualitative models and is aimed at building theories, data analysis tends to be more complex and aims to achieve an explanatory power that is not necessary in other approaches.

The heart of the grounded theory approach occurs in its use of coding , its main form of data analysis. There are three different types of coding used in a more-or-less sequential manner this discussion is adapted from Strauss and Corbin, , , Patton, ; and Creswell, ; for dissertations, more detailed discussions in primary sources should be consulted. The first type of coding is open coding which is much like the description goal of science. Usually open coding is done first. During open coding, the researcher labels and categorizes the phenomena being studied.

This involves the process of describing the data through means such as examination, comparison, conceptualization, and categorization. Labels are created to describe in one or a few words the categories one finds in the data. Examples are collected for all these categories. For example, in a grounded theory study of the effects of child sexual abuse, open coding might discover in the reports of the participants some categories such as these: Feeling powerless, hating myself, hating the abuser, or feeling permanently damaged.

The categories are studied more carefully to identify subcategories, which are called properties and dimensionality in the categories. A link is an axis , hence the term axial. How is axial coding actually done? Axial coding first identifies the central categories about the phenomenon. Next, the researcher explores the data carefully to discover causal conditions , which are categories of conditions influencing the central category or categories.

The researcher continues axial coding by identifying interactions among the categories which are called strategies , although that term might be confusing.

Axial coding continues with the identification and exploration of other supporting or weakening conditions which exert lesser influences on the central variables. These are categories in the data which label the contexts and intervening conditions. Finally, consequences are carefully identified and described.

These would include all the outcomes of the presence of the central category in all its interactions strategies with contexts, intervening conditions, properties, dimensions, etc.

Consequences describe what happens when the central category is found under specific conditions. See Reflective coding Matrix. Notice that these consequences are NOT presupposed, but are carefully teased out of the real reports and descriptions of their experiences by the many participants in the study.

Preconceptions about the theory must be left at the door. Without using the terminology of phenomenology, the requirement is the same. The third type of coding, selective coding, continues the axial coding activity of relating the subsidiary categories to the central category s. Selective coding is the process of selecting your main phenomenon core category around which all other phenomena subsidiary categories are grouped, arranging the groupings, studying the results and rearranging where necessary.

From this last type of coding, the grounded theory researcher moves toward developing a model of process and a transactional system, which essentially tells the story of the outcome of the research. The story line tells the results of the axial coding in a coherent narrative. Many grounded theory researchers do not create a conditional matrix, a diagram or picture of the various categories, interactions, and relationships among the central category s and the subsidiary categories.

But the conditional matrix is a very helpful tool in creating the narrative story line which embodies the grounded theory. The selective coding process typically focuses on two dimensions of the phenomenon: its process and its transactional system. Again, the conditional matrix is quite useful in elucidating these two elements of the theory. Process is the manner in which actions and interactions occur in a sequence or series. It incorporates the time element.

I started to hate myself, though not at first. This in turn alienated most participants from other sources of more benign love, because the victims did not feel worthy of it.

The use of the conditional matrix and the process and transactional-system analysis leads finally to the general description of the grounded theory. It might be a brief sentence distilling all the above work, or a more complex statement.

But it will also be accompanied by a set of propositions or hypotheses which explain the phenomenon under study. At this stage, it is usual for grounded theory researchers to return not only to the original data to ensure that the theory fits those data, but may meet with the participants again to compare the theory with their perceptions and to ask them whether the theory fits their experiences. Their responses will be taken as new data to be incorporated into the theory, which is thought to be in a continual adaptation and evolution.

Grounded theory is never complete. Process questions about changing experience over time or its stages and phases e. In grounded theory the researcher may ask understanding questions, trying to elicit the understanding of the participants about their experiences.

See Data Saturartion. See Grounded Theory Examples. A number of useful texts discuss methods of Grounded Theory data collection, data analysis, and writing the results.

The following list contains excellent general introductions to ethnography, as well as more detailed treatments by practitioners:. Grounded theory Bibliography. Washington, DC: American. Creswell, J. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morrow and Mary Lee Smith. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions, 2 nd edition. Morse, J. Read first for a users guide to qualitative methods. Patton, M. Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3 rd edition.

Housand Oaks, CA: Sage. Corbin, J. Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13 , Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory 3 rd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Glaser, B. The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine. Strauss, A. Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and theory for developing grounded theory 2 nd ed.

By using inductive strategies of analysis, Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to research which seeks to develop theory grounded in the data. The aim of Grounded Theory Methods is not only to describe well the topic of study but to develop adequate theoretical conceptualizations of findings.

In an almost detective-like approach, researchers collect and analyze data, allowing new questions and findings to arise and impact subsequent data collection and analysis. Bryant, A. The Sage Handbook of grounded theory. London: Sage. The grounded theory method: An explication and interpretation.

Emerson Ed. Boston: Little, Brown.

Grounded Theory

He has a teaching experience in elementary schools, high schools, universities, and teachers colleges. His research interests include online education, digital divide, collaborative teaching, and manpower productivity in education. Coding issues in grounded theory. Issues In Educational Research , 16 1 ,

This article sets forth the argument that management research should take into account the complex processes of enterprise activity and the inherent contextual issues that effect managerial behaviour. Research accounts from other areas of social inquiry have conveyed the worthiness of the grounded theory approach to qualitatively focused studies. It is concluded that grounded theory can be a significant approach to developing management understanding. Douglas, D. Report bugs here.

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Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory

Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis.

Coding issues in grounded theory

This book was written at a time when researchers in sociology were questioning the assumptions of positivism. Glaser and Strauss were arguing for an alternative approach, one that involves developing theories in a way that is connected to the data collection and analysis process. Participant Observation. This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied.

In this chapter we introduce grounded theory methodology and methods. In particular we clarify which research questions are appropriate for a grounded theory study and give an overview of the main techniques and procedures, such as the coding procedures, theoretical sensitivity, theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation. We further discuss the role of theory within grounded theory and provide examples of studies in which the coding paradigm of grounded theory has been altered in order to be better suitable for applications in mathematics education. In our exposition we mainly refer to grounded theory techniques and procedures according to Strauss and Corbin Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, , but also include other approaches in the discussion in order to point out the particularities of the approach by Strauss and Corbin. With their focus on theory development, they dissociate themselves from mere theory verification and the concomitant separation of the context of theory discovery and the context of theory justification, which was the prominent scientific method at that time. With their approach to qualitative research, they also go beyond the mere description of phenomena.

Founded in , the journal aims to represent the discipline as comprehensively as possible, inviting contributions from sociologists regardless of their conceptual affinities and orientations. By dissociating the editorial process from institutional affiliations and sub-disciplinary networks as thoroughly as possible, and by affording a complex process of peer review, the ZfS is set up to operate as an "authors' journal" instead of an "editors' journal". The editorial office of the ZfS is located at Bielefeld University. The Faculty of Sociology in Bielefeld delegates supervision of the journal to an executive board of five editors. Members of this executive board are recruited from different universities and institutes, and at any time, only one of the five editors may be from Bielefeld faculty. The neutralization of institutional and personal interests within the editorial process is further safeguarded by the formal organization of the editorial process:. All editorial decisions are taken collectively by the five editors of the journal.

Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers

This essay focuses on one qualitative research method, grounded theory. The essay attempts to clarify the meaning of the method and to promote consistency in its use. Toward that end the essay reviews the development of grounded theory, its central features, and criteria for its evaluation; suggests some possible reasons for misunderstanding it; and identifies critical issues regarding its use.

Jump to navigation. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research approach that attempts to develop theories of understanding based on data from the real world. Unlike some other forms of qualitative inquiry, grounded theory attempts to go beyond rich description which it also strives for to an explanation of the phenomena of interest. The second key word is grounded. For example, if one wished to derive a grounded theory about the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning, one would gather many kinds of data from persons who had grown up amid child abuse, and would build the theory of how it affects adult development on the information obtained from those people.

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North Dakota.

Честно говоря, я бы предпочел, чтобы он остался жив. Его смерть бросает на Цифровую крепость тень подозрения. Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно. Изначальный план состоял в том, чтобы сделать это незаметно и позволить Танкадо продать пароль. Сьюзан должна была признать, что прозвучало это довольно убедительно.

 - Соши. Соши Кута, тонкая как проволока, весила не больше сорока килограммов. Она была его помощницей, прекрасным техником лаборатории систем безопасности, выпускницей Массачусетс кого технологического института. Она часто работала с ним допоздна и, единственная из всех сотрудников, нисколько его не боялась. Соши посмотрела на него с укором и сердито спросила: - Какого дьявола вы не отвечаете.

Глаза Сьюзан сузились. Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью. Вообще-то она ничего не имела против этого имени, но Хейл был единственным, кто его использовал, и это было ей неприятно. - Почему бы мне не помочь тебе? - предложил Хейл.

Нуматака начал слегка нервничать. Он очень надеялся, что ничего не сорвалось. Если ключ так хорош, как о нем говорят, он взломает самый совершенный продукт компьютерной эры - абсолютно стойкий алгоритм цифрового кодирования. Нуматака введет этот алгоритм в чипы VSLI со специальным покрытием и выбросит их на массовый рынок, где их будут покупать производители компьютеров, правительства, промышленные компания. А может быть, он даже запустит их на черный рынок… рынок международного терроризма.

Другого нет и не. Двадцать миллионов долларов - это очень большие деньги, но если принять во внимание, за что они будут заплачены, то это сущие гроши. ГЛАВА 19 - А вдруг кто-то еще хочет заполучить это кольцо? - спросила Сьюзан, внезапно заволновавшись.

 И вы уверены, что эта женщина - проститутка. - Абсолютно. Такая красивая женщина пошла бы с этим типом, только если бы ей хорошо заплатили. Боже .

Grounded theories of management: a methodological review

Парень загородил ему дорогу. - Подними. Беккер заморгал от неожиданности.

Понимая, что теряет время, Сьюзан вызвала на экран регистр замка и проверила, верно ли был введен персональный код. Все было сделано как положено. Тогда откуда же пришла команда на ручное отключение. - рассердилась .

 - Сьюзан не знала, как. Бросила взгляд на монитор, потом посмотрела на Грега Хейла.  - Сейчас.

Испанская церковь. Беккер отлично знал, что в Испании только одна церковь - римско-католическая. Католицизм здесь посильнее, чем в самом Ватикане. - У нас, конечно, не все его тело, - добавил лейтенант.  - Solo el escroto.


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    Juliet Corbin 1 and Anselm Strauss. Using grounded theory as an example, this paper examines three methodologi- cal questions that are generally applicable.

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