Second Language Teaching And Learning Nunan Pdf

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Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching

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Download Free PDF. Nektar Harutyunyan. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. In an interactive approach, Nunan shares theory and engages readers to reflect on both vignettes and their own experiences to better consolidate their understanding of the key concepts of the discipline. In this fresh, straightforward introduc- tion to teaching English to speakers of other languages he presents teaching tech- niques and procedures along with the underlying theory and principles.

Complex theories and research studies are explained in a clear and comprehensible, yet non-trivial, manner. Practical examples of how to develop teaching materials and tasks from sound principles provide rich illustrations of theoretical constructs. Readers get involved through engaging, interactive pedagogi- cal features, and opportunities for reflection and personal application. Each chapter follows the same format so that readers know what to expect as they work through the text.

This text is ideally suited for teacher preparation courses and for practicing teachers in a wide range of language teaching contexts around the world. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

English language—Study and teaching—Foreign speakers. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Evaluation. English language—Ability testing. A2N88 TESOL encompasses many other acronyms. This textbook is designed to be applicable to a wide range of language teaching contexts.

Whether you are currently teaching or preparing to teach, I encourage you to think about these different contexts and the many different purposes that students may have for learning the language. There have also been enormous changes in the place of English in the world, and how it is taught and used around the world. Whose norm, and which norms, were rarely questioned. Ownership of English was often attributed to England. There has been a radical transformation in who uses the language, in what contexts, and for what purposes, and the language itself is in a constant state of change.

The spread of a natural human language across the countries and regions of the planet has resulted in variation as a consequence of nativization and acculturation of the language in various communities. These processes have affected the grammatical structure and the use of language according to local needs and conventions.

Use of English in various contexts mani- fests in various genres. I will go into these concepts and prac- tices in the body of the book. In an illuminating article, Lin et al. They use their stories to challenge the notion that English is created in London or New York and exported to the world.

These perspectives inform the book in a number of ways. Also, the central thread of learner-centeredness running through the book places learner diversity at the center of the language curriculum. Vignettes are portraits or snapshots. The vignettes in this book are classroom narratives showing part of a lesson in action.

Here I select and com- ment on an issue that is particularly pertinent to the topic of the chapter. What Teachers Want to Know takes the form of an FAQ between teachers and teach- ers in preparation and a teacher educator.

The Small Group Discussion section takes the form of an online discussion group with teachers taking part in a TESOL program, where a thread is initiated by the instructor, and participants then provide interactive posts to the discussion site. References Graddol, D. London: The British Council. Graddol, D. Kachru, Y.

Smith Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes. New York: Routledge. Lin, A. Wang, N. Akamatsu, and M. Shin, H. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 3, , — This will provide a framework for chapters to come on teaching listening, speaking, reading, writing, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar.

There are three subcomponents to curriculum development: syllabus design, methodology, and evaluation. In too many educational systems, what is taught is determined by what is to be assessed.

Syllabus design focuses on content, which deals not only with what we should teach, but also the order in which the content is taught and the reasons for teaching this content to our learners. According to Richards et al. Assessment is concerned with how well our learners have done, while evalua- tion is much broader and is concerned with how well our program or course has served the learners.

The relationship between evaluation and assessment is dis- cussed, in some detail, in Chapter Vignette As you read the following vignette, try to picture the classroom in your imagination. The teacher stands in front of the class. She is a young Canadian woman who has been in Tokyo for almost a year.

There are twelve students in the class. This is the third class of the semester, and the students and the teacher are beginning to get used to each other. Her students have a pretty good idea of what to expect as the teacher signals that the class is about to begin.

Yes, it is. Are these your books? Yes, they are. Is this your pen? The students smile shyly. Then, she instructs the students to stand up. She passes the bag around a second time, and tells the students to remove an object. What 3 things did you notice in the vignette? Write them down in note form.

Write down 3—5 questions you would like to ask the teacher about the lesson. The teacher begins the lesson with a classic audiolingual drill. This is the way that I was trained to teach languages back in the early s.

The teacher is active. She encourages the students with positive feedback, but also gives gentle correction when they make mistakes. She praises the stu- dents without being patronizing.

This appears to create a positive classroom environment. This search was based on the belief that, ultimately, there must be a method that would work bet- ter than any other for learners everywhere regardless of biographical characteristics such as age, the language they are learning, whether they are learning English as a second language or as a foreign language, and so on.

Grammar-Translation At different historical periods, the profession has favored one particular method over competing methods. The method that held greatest sway is grammar-translation.

In fact, this method is still popular in many parts of the world. Focusing on written rather than spoken language, the method, as the name suggests, focuses on the explicit teaching of grammar rules. For obvious reasons, the method could only be used in classrooms where the learners shared a common language. Grammar-translation came in for severe criticism during World War II. This was particularly true of the spoken language, which is not sur- prising as learners often had virtually no exposure to the spoken language.

This was profoundly unsatisfactory to government bodies that needed soldiers, diplomats, and others who could learn to speak the target language, and who could develop their skills rapidly rather than over the course of years. I studied Latin in junior high school, and can recall spending hours in the classroom and at home, doing translation exercises with a grammar book and a bilingual dictionary at my elbow. Audiolingualism In his introductory book on language curriculum development, Richards describes audiolingualism as the most popular of all the language teaching methods.

In the following quote, he points out that methods such as audiolingualism are under- pinned by a theory of language in this case structural linguistics and a theory of learning behaviorism. In the United States, in the s, language teaching was under the sway of a powerful method — the Audiolingual Method.

Language learning was thought to depend on habits that could be established by repetition. Richards, 25—26 In this extract, Richards describes the origins of audiolingualism and summarizes its key principles. Although behaviorism, the psychological theory on which it is based, was largely discredited many years ago, some of the techniques spawned by the method such as various forms of drilling remain popular today.

At the begin- ning stages of learning another language, and also when teaching beginners, I often use some form of drilling, although I always give the drill a communicative cast.

Nunan 2015 TESOL methods

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. About About this book Chapters Table of contents 14 chapters About this book Introduction This book evaluates the origins of processes of change in language teaching in China, and the factors influencing their success. Examining diverse experiences and drawing on the perspectives of academics from the top institutions in the country, the authors analyse the complex interplay between global and local influences on language policies. Encouraging discussion of the significant education reforms that have taken place in China in recent years, this work will be of interest to students and scholars of language education, English as a Second Language and applied linguistics.

From a grammatical perspective, many foreign language programmes and teaching materials are based on a linear model of language acquisition. This model operates on the premise that learners acquire one target language item at a time, in a sequential, step-by-step fashion. However, such a model is inconsistent with what is observed as learners go about the process of acquiring another language. In this article I argue for an alternative to the linear model which I call, for want of a better term, an organic approach to second language pedagogy. In the first part of the article I shall contrast both approaches, and look at evidence from second language acquisition and discourse analysis which supports the organic view. In the second part of the article I shall outline some of the pedagogical implications of the organic approach, illustrating them with practical ideas for the classroom.

Second Language Learning and Language Teaching

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Focus on Language 5. Focus on the Learner 6. The Learning Process 7. Listening 8. Speaking 9.

Second Language Teaching and Learning .: David Nunan

David Nunan.pdf

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Сьюзан старалась держаться поближе к шефу на небольшой платформе с металлическими поручнями. По мере того как они удалялись от двери, свет становился все более тусклым, и вскоре они оказались в полной темноте. Единственным освещением в шифровалке был разве что свет звезд над их головами, едва уловимое свечение проникало также сквозь разбитую стеклянную стену Третьего узла. Стратмор шагнул вперед, нащупывая ногой место, где начинались ступеньки узенькой лестницы. Переложив берет-ту в левую руку, правой он взялся за перила. Он прекрасно знал, что левой рукой стрелял так же плохо, как и правой, к тому же правая рука была ему нужна, чтобы поддерживать равновесие. Грохнуться с этой лестницы означало до конца дней остаться калекой, а его представления о жизни на пенсии никак не увязывались с инвалидным креслом.

ЭНИГМА, это двенадцатитонное чудовище нацистов, была самой известной в истории шифровальной машиной. Там тоже были группы из четырех знаков. - Потрясающе, - страдальчески сказал директор.  - У вас, часом, нет такой же под рукой. - Не в этом дело! - воскликнула Сьюзан, внезапно оживившись. Это как раз было ее специальностью.

 Верно… - Стратмор задумался.  - На какое-то время. - Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит.

 Нам нужен этот предмет, - сказал Фонтейн.  - Где сейчас находится Халохот. Смит бросил взгляд через плечо. - Сэр… видите ли, он у. - Что значит у вас? - крикнул директор.

 Сьюзан, - сказал он торжественно.  - Здесь мы в безопасности. Нам нужно поговорить. Если Грег Хейл ворвется… - Он не закончил фразу.

Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца. Ни перед чем не останавливаться, только бы заполучить кольцо.

 - Например, почему он провел там всю ночь. - Заражал вирусами свое любимое детище. - Нет, - сказала она раздраженно.

 Так, значит, вы не по поводу моей колонки. - Нет, сэр. Казалось, старик испытал сильнейшее разочарование. Он медленно откинулся на гору подушек.

А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку. Стоит ли удивляться, что он находится на грани срыва?. - С учетом обстоятельств, я полагаю, - сказала Сьюзан, - вам все же нужно позвонить директору.

Он посмотрел на дверь с номером 301. Там, за ней, его обратный билет. Остается только заполнить. Беккер снова вздохнул, решительно подошел к двери и громко постучал.

 - Он и меня убьет. Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо. Она раскусила эту тактику разделяй и властвуй, тактику отставного морского пехотинца.

 Директор, у нас нет выбора. Мы должны вырубить питание главного банка данных. - Это невозможно, - сказал директор.  - Вы представляете, каковы будут последствия.

Nunan 2015 TESOL methods


  1. Justa A. 22.05.2021 at 03:57

    Gillis, Nunan, Segura, and Sadiku, [50] [67] [64] [29] state that to be successful in learning a language is measured according to the ability to.