Vitamin And Mineral Requirements In Human Nutrition Pdf
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The role of nutrition in improving quality of life and combating disease is undeniable — and researchers from different disciplines are bringing their perspectives to bear on this fundamental topic.
- Human nutrition
- Recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals
- Interventions for Addressing Vitamin and Mineral Inadequacies
The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient. Unless specified, values represent those for adults ages 19 and older. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.
This brief provides an overview of effective ways to deliver essential vitamins and minerals, collectively called micronutrients, to populations. The descriptions of advantages and limitations of different micronutrient approaches can help program managers select the appropriate micronutrient program to prevent and correct insufficient micronutrient intakes for a target population based on the country context.
Insufficient micronutrient intake, often referred to as micronutrient inadequacy, results from the lack of consumption of foods that supply those micronutrients.
Micronutrient inadequacy is one of the causes of micronutrient deficiency; other causes of this deficiency are micronutrient losses due to diseases and infections, parasitism and even genetic abnormalities. Micronutrient deficiencies remain widespread and disproportionately affect vulnerable sub-groups within populations see Box I. The food fortification and supplementation approaches described in this brief can correct for inadequacies and can help reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies.
Other approaches, such as infection prevention and treatment, also reduce micronutrient deficiencies, but these approaches will not be covered in this brief.
A significant proportion of the global burden of micronutrient deficiencies is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia see Figure 1.
This geographic concentration exists for many reasons, including poor dietary diversity due to poverty and food insecurity, low bioavailability of nutrients in diets and nutrient loss due to illness. The long-term solution for solving micronutrient inadequacies is using food-based approaches to ensure a diverse, sustainable and nutritious diet, which may be complemented with food fortification and, for specific life-stages and population groups, micronutrient supplementation to ensure supply of micronutrients that might be insufficient in the usual diets Mayo-Wilson, et al.
The benefits of treating and preventing micronutrient deficiencies are well documented. Vitamin A supplied through supplements, for example, can prevent child blindness and reduce mortality in children aged 6 months to 5 years old by 23 percent Mayo-Wilson, et al. Anemia, including that caused by iron deficiency, can contribute to postpartum hemorrhage and is a suspected contributor to maternal mortality in about 20 percent of maternal deaths. This brief is divided into two sections: an overview of interventions to deliver micronutrients and guidance on the decision-making process when selecting an intervention.
Figure 1. This map details worldwide severity of anemia as a sign of several micronutrient deficiencies — and vitamin A and zinc deficiencies — using World Health Organization WHO children under 5 prevalence data.
Severity was coded using a 3-point weighting system based on levels of public health significance cutoffs low, moderate and high. These cutoffs are weighted to give the final 3-point scale of low, moderate and high HarvestPlus, Interventions to deliver micronutrients fall under five broad categories: nutrition-sensitive approaches, dietary diversification and modification, breastfeeding, fortification of food with micronutrients and the provision of vitamin and mineral supplements to targeted populations Box 3.
Nutrition-sensitive activities and interventions address the underlying and systematic causes of malnutrition. They influence outcomes related to food security; adequate caregiving resources at the maternal, household and community levels; healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies; and a safe and hygienic environment. Agriculture is one of the key sectors through which nutrition-sensitive activities can be implemented, and these activities should be programmed along with nutrition-specific actions, or that address the immediate determinants of malnutrition.
Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions play a key role in improving the nutritional status of women and children.
While increased production and productivity can increase the availability of food for consumption, increase incomes and decrease the prices consumers pay, these alone do not automatically translate to nutritional gains. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions can increase the availability and consumption of diverse and nutritious foods for rural households, especially for women and children, via three main pathways:. Interventions that contribute to making safe, micronutrient-rich foods more available and accessible to low-income consumers can improve dietary diversity and nutrient intake.
Approaches should engage both women and men to bring about changes in attitudes, roles and behaviors. In addition, biofortification — which involves increasing the micronutrient content of common crops and their bioavailability — can be a good strategy to increase micronutrient intake.
Promising reports exist of increased iron and zinc supplies with biofortified pearl millet Kodkany, et al. The integration of biofortified crops into agricultural value chains and food systems requires enhanced efforts to increase the production, acceptability and processing of these crops. These efforts, alongside efforts to create consumer desirability for such products, will ensure that biofortified crops are readily available and affordable in local markets throughout the year.
In most resource-poor settings, diets are mainly comprised of starches, as individuals consume limited quantities of meats, eggs, dairy, fruits and fresh vegetables. However, improving household diets requires an increase in the presence of these foods in the diet. Incorporating animal-source foods, either fresh or in dried form, increases the availability of vitamin A, iron, zinc and vitamins B2 and B12 in the diet Gibson, Dietary modification involves changes in food preparation, processing and consumption at the commercial, individual or household level to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in food.
For example, coffee and tea contain polyphenols, which inhibit iron absorption, so their consumption alongside food at meal times should be discouraged. Food can be processed to improve bioavailability by employing processes such as germination, fermentation and soaking to reduce the phytate content that can interfere with absorption of iron and zinc. On an individual level, however, these practices can make incremental improvements in the intake and absorption of micronutrients and are advantageous due to their cultural acceptability and economic feasibility Gibson, For these strategies to be successful, they have to be integrated into other household practices or be applied by the food industry.
Before introducing dietary diversification or modification, formative research should be conducted to understand food habits at the household and individual levels and access to foods along with the social and cultural barriers and opportunities that influence diet. Information that could be helpful includes dietary patterns, nutrient intakes and diets of individuals and households; cost of the food basket based on current consumption, economic indicators and food costing data; and information on the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of the family about the importance of vitamins and minerals in food Gibson, Making changes to household dietary practices requires a behavior change approach; strategies that have been shown to impact dietary practices include active nutrition education, counseling and social marketing campaigns to communicate the benefits associated with making changes to dietary practices Guldan, et al.
That said, in resource-poor settings, a dietary strategy is unlikely to fully meet all nutritional needs, and additional strategies, such as fortification and supplementation, should also be considered Torheim, et al. Human milk is the ideal, sole source of nutrition for children younger than 6 months of age and an optimal complement to the diet through the second year of life.
WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods until the second year of life or longer. The breast milk concentration of some water-soluble vitamins like thiamin B1 , riboflavin B2 , pyridoxine B6 , niacin B3 , vitamin B12 and ascorbic acid C is responsive to maternal intake, while that of folate is not unless the mother is severely deficient.
Among the fat-soluble vitamins, increased maternal intake of vitamin A and vitamin D can lead to increased levels in breast milk. Likewise, among minerals, consumption of foods or products with iodine and selenium increases the content of these minerals in breast milk, but this is not true for iron, zinc and copper Allen, From a program perspective, interventions that improve the nutritional status of all adolescent girls and women of reproductive age are the best approaches to ensure that women maintain adequate micronutrient stores during pregnancy and lactation.
Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to an industry-manufactured food, whether or not they are normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups WHO and FAO, There are three main types of food fortification: i mass fortification refers to the addition of micronutrients and minerals to commonly eaten products, such as cereal staples, rice, oil, sugar, milk and salt; ii targeted fortification refers to the addition of micronutrients to certain foods that a specific population or age group consumes, for example, emergency rations for refugees or complementary foods for children in preschool feeding programs; and iii commercial-driven fortification refers to when food manufacturers fortify their product with micronutrients to enhance its marketability, which sometimes may have positive influence in the diet, for example the addition of vitamin D and calcium to orange juice WHO and FAO, Fortification is less expensive than dietary diversification and supplementation if the food is manufactured by relatively well-developed and centralized industries.
Mass fortification should be considered when micronutrient inadequacy is widespread and appropriate conditions are available for the production, sale, standard enforcement, and monitoring of fortified products.
The most commonly fortified foods are staple foods, such as corn flour, wheat flour and rice; vegetable oil; sugar; milk; and salt. Other examples of fortification include folic acid in flour Hertrampf, et al.
Successful mass fortification requires government regulation and enforcement. It also includes quality control and assurance procedures for the manufacturing industry.
An existing production facility as well as an ongoing production process and supply chain enable easy and cost-efficient industrial production and trade of the fortified product. If the conditions are not appropriate — for example, production of milled flours is through small and underdeveloped cottage industries — other interventions for the delivery of micronutrients should be considered instead of fortification.
It is important to note that mass fortification does not involve promoting the consumption of these fortified food vehicles. Effective mass fortification builds on, rather than changes, the normal eating habits of the population; social marketing is therefore often not necessary.
Efforts to prevent non-communicable diseases frequently aim to reduce the consumption of typical vehicles for food fortification such as salt, sugar and oil. Mass fortification is compatible with these efforts; fortified foods are only used as delivery vehicles, and the micronutrient content can be adjusted to changing intake patterns.
Mass fortification has the advantage of reaching large sections of the population through markets. However, this method may only partially benefit those whose micronutrient requirements are higher than the needs of the general population, such as young children or pregnant and lactating women. For those whose needs are not fully met, it is useful to use targeted fortification or supplementation to complement mass fortification.
Targeted Fortification addition of micronutrients to food for specific populations. In targeted fortification, the objective is to develop special foods that meet the micronutrient needs of specific populations or age groups. The World Food Programme WFP uses targeted fortification in complex emergencies where markets may not be functioning to support mass fortification or other interventions Nutrition Service, The WFP often provides food rations that are designed to meet the macronutrient and micronutrient needs of the population through the provision of fortified-blended foods FBF.
These are frequently targeted to pregnant and lactating women and young children. Outside of humanitarian settings, several other examples of targeted fortification with multiple micronutrients exist, including Incaparina — a fortified blended flour made with corn and soy flours in Guatemala; other blended flours used as complementary foods for infants in Indonesia; — a blended flour used as complementary food in Peru WHO and FAO, These products are dense in both energy and protein, and they supply essential fatty acid and micronutrients to meet the needs of individuals who are malnourished Gibson, Its concentrated formulation stipulates recovery for severely wasted individuals.
Modifications of this product and reduction in serving size led to RUSFs, which are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition MAM. RUSF is meant for use as a supplementary food, intended to prevent severe acute malnutrition and stimulate recovery of moderate wasting when supplementing the local diet. Table 1. Minerals: calcium, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium, and iodine Vitamins: folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, vitamins A, B12, D3, and E.
Commercial, or market-driven, fortification is when food manufacturers add one or more micronutrients to a specific food product for a business or brand advantage. Examples of commercial-driven fortification products include fortified breakfast cereals and beverages. These processed products typically reach a smaller portion of the population than those reached by fortified staple foods, and many times they do not reach the most vulnerable groups in the population.
Government regulation is always necessary to ensure that the fortification of processed foods or beverages will not lead to undesirably high intakes of micronutrients, a possibility when products are over-fortified or when individuals consume a variety of fortified products. Moreover, marketing of these products should also be checked to respond to public health interests. According to the U.
Food and Drug Administration, a supplement is a product that contains a dietary ingredient intended to add further nutritional value to the diet. Supplement formulations include tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids or powders FDA, Supplements could be consumed alone or together with foods. Supplementation should be targeted to vulnerable groups whose micronutrient needs are not adequately met from food sources alone.
Pregnant women are commonly targeted for supplementation by traditional pharmaceutical preparations as their micronutrient needs are increased during pregnancy. Supplementation with iron and folic acid IFA is an integral part of antenatal care, but issues related to supply, coverage and usability still remain. It is increasingly being recognized that preventing anemia in adolescent girls and women of reproductive age will assure that their iron needs are met if and when these women become pregnant.
Intermittent e. In addition, WHO recommends intermittent iron supplementation of preschool 24—59 months and school-age 5—12 years children if anemia prevalence is higher than 20 percent. Daily iron supplementation is recommended for children 6—23 months in settings where the prevalence of anemia in children approximately one year of age is above 40 percent or where the diet does not include foods fortified with iron WHO, Nevertheless, the safety of supplying more iron to children in malaria-endemic areas or where intestinal pathogenic bacteria are common is still a matter of concern.
This intervention is especially important when the diet is low in folate or fortification programs with folic acid are nonexistent in the area. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy is a relatively new recommendation from the WHO to reduce the risk of eclampsia WHO, Experience in the use of this intervention is low, and programmatic issues related to its demand, use and adherence still have to be resolved.
Vitamin A supplementation is given biannually to children aged 6 months to 5 years old as part of child health days or campaigns in many countries.
Recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals
Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines , you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food.
Interventions for Addressing Vitamin and Mineral Inadequacies
This brief provides an overview of effective ways to deliver essential vitamins and minerals, collectively called micronutrients, to populations. The descriptions of advantages and limitations of different micronutrient approaches can help program managers select the appropriate micronutrient program to prevent and correct insufficient micronutrient intakes for a target population based on the country context. Insufficient micronutrient intake, often referred to as micronutrient inadequacy, results from the lack of consumption of foods that supply those micronutrients. Micronutrient inadequacy is one of the causes of micronutrient deficiency; other causes of this deficiency are micronutrient losses due to diseases and infections, parasitism and even genetic abnormalities.
Human nutrition , process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life. The study of human nutrition is interdisciplinary in character, involving not only physiology , biochemistry, and molecular biology but also fields such as psychology and anthropology , which explore the influence of attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and cultural traditions on food choices. Human nutrition further touches on economics and political science as the world community recognizes and responds to the suffering and death caused by malnutrition.
Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and good health. The human body contains chemical compounds such as water, carbohydrates, amino acids found in proteins , fatty acids found in lipids , and nucleic acids DNA and RNA. These compounds are composed of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Any study done to determine nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all the materials excreted and eliminated from the body including urine and feces. The seven major classes of nutrients are carbohydrates , fats , fiber , minerals , proteins , vitamins , and water.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Nutrient minerals, being elements, cannot be synthesized biochemically by living organisms. The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfur , iron , chlorine , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , molybdenum , iodine , and selenium.
Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул. Через шестьдесят секунд у него над головой затрещал интерком. - Прошу начальника систем безопасности связаться с главным коммутатором, где его ждет важное сообщение. От изумления у Джаббы глаза вылезли на лоб.
Ни для кого не было секретом, что всем в этом многомиллиардном курятнике управляли шифровальщики. Сотрудников же лаборатории безопасности им приходилось терпеть, потому что те обеспечивали бесперебойную работу их игрушек. Чатрукьян принял решение и поднял телефонную трубку, но поднести ее к уху не успел. Он замер, когда его взгляд упал на монитор. Как при замедленной съемке, он положил трубку на место и впился глазами в экран. За восемь месяцев работы в лаборатории Фил Чатрукьян никогда не видел цифр в графе отсчета часов на мониторе ТРАНСТЕКСТА что-либо иное, кроме двух нулей.
Трудно было найти время для предварительного обоснования защитных мер. Сотрудникам службы безопасности платили за их техническое мастерство… а также за чутье. Действуй, объясняться будешь. Чатрукьян знал, что ему делать. Знал он и то, что, когда пыль осядет, он либо станет героем АНБ, либо пополнит ряды тех, кто ищет работу. В огромной дешифровальной машине завелся вирус - в этом он был абсолютно уверен.
Нет, решила. Конечно. Хейл продолжал взывать к ней: - Я отключил Следопыта, подумав, что ты за мной шпионишь.
Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов. Сьюзан сделала еще несколько шагов и вдруг поняла, что это за предмет.
Когда я опустился на колени, чтобы помочь ему, этот человек стал совать мне пальцы прямо в лицо. Он хотел отдать кольцо. Какие же страшные были у него руки.
Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла. Тот в нерешительности застыл в дверях, как хорошо обученная служебная собака, знающая, что ей запрещено переступать порог.
Ради всего святого. Шифры-убийцы похожи на любые другие - они так же произвольны. Угадать ключи к ним невозможно.
Здесь говорится о другом изотопе урана. Мидж изумленно всплеснула руками. - И там и там уран, но разный. - В обеих бомбах уран? - Джабба оживился и прильнул к экрану.
Зачем им переходить на Цифровую крепость. Стратмор улыбнулся: - Это. Мы организуем утечку секретной информации.
Нет, конечно. Я просто подумал… - Толстяк быстро убрал бумажник.