Long Term And Short Term Financial Instruments Pdf
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- Sources of Long term Financing
- The Benefits of Long-Term vs. Short-Term Financing
- Sources of Finance
The main sources of short-term financing are 1 trade credit, 2 commercial bank loans, 3 commercial paper, a specific type of promissory note , and 4 secured loans.
Sources of Long term Financing
Figure 3 : Outline of financing activities according to the duration of the provision of capital. Financing is very important for companies in all countries of the world, but what is financing exactly? Why do companies need corporate finance? The nature and extent of the procured, abstract capital are shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet in the items of equity and debt. On the asset side of the balance sheet it can be seen what kind of goods were procured with the funds provided by the capital providers investment. As an example, if someone wants to start a business for the production of tennis balls, this person has to procure capital to purchase the raw materials for the production of tennis balls and to pay the staff for manufacturing. Hence the necessity to make use of financial instruments arises.
The Benefits of Long-Term vs. Short-Term Financing
Sources of finance for business are equity, debt, debentures, retained earnings, term loans, working capital loans, letter of credit, euro issue, venture funding etc. These sources of funds are used in different situations. They are classified based on time period, ownership and control, and their source of generation. It is ideal to evaluate each source of capital before opting for it. Sources of capital are the most explorable area especially for the entrepreneurs who are about to start a new business. It is perhaps the toughest part of all the efforts.
Sources of Finance
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties. They can be created, traded, modified and settled. They can be cash currency , evidence of an ownership interest in an entity or a contractual right to receive or deliver in the form of currency forex ; debt bonds , loans ; equity shares ; or derivatives options , futures , forwards. International Accounting Standards IAS 32 and 39 define a financial instrument as "any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity".
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Money Market Instruments
Financing is a very important part of every business. Firms often need financing to pay for their assets, equipment, and other important items. Financing can be either long-term or short-term. As is obvious, long-term financing is more expensive as compared to short-term financing. There are different vehicles through which long-term and short-term financing is made available. This chapter deals with the major vehicles of both types of financing. The common sources of financing are capital that is generated by the firm itself and sometimes, it is capital from external funders, which is usually obtained after issuance of new debt and equity.
The money market is the arena in which financial institutions make available to a broad range of borrowers and investors the opportunity to buy and sell various forms of short-term securities. There is no physical "money market. Money markets exist both in the United States and abroad. The short-term debts and securities sold on the money markets—which are known as money market instruments—have maturities ranging from one day to one year and are extremely liquid. Treasury bills, federal agency notes, certificates of deposit CDs , eurodollar deposits, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, and repurchase agreements are examples of instruments.
Стратмор провел рукой по вспотевшему лбу. - Этот шифр есть продукт нового типа шифровального алгоритма, с таким нам еще не приходилось сталкиваться. Эти слова повергли Сьюзан в еще большее смятение. Шифровальный алгоритм - это просто набор математических формул для преобразования текста в шифр.
Она хорошо знала, что процессор перебирает тридцать миллионов паролей в секунду - сто миллиардов в час. Если ТРАНСТЕКСТ до сих пор не дал ответа, значит, пароль насчитывает не менее десяти миллиардов знаков. Полнейшее безумие.