Air Pollution And Its Effects On Human Health Pdf
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- Health impacts of air pollution
- The effects of air pollution on human health
- Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
Health impacts of air pollution
The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata. These impediments influence strongly the process of photosynthesis which rate declines sharply.
A major study on urban pollution carried out in cities worldwide has confirmed the fear that air pollution impacts on human health in the short term and is directly linked to the deaths of elderly people and those already suffering from illness on a daily basis. The study, performed by an international team of 50 scientists and published in the specialist New England Journal of Medicine , gathers data on cities in 24 countries, including Mexico City, New York City, London and Madrid. The research focuses on two kinds of ambient suspended particles , emitted mainly from car exhausts: PM 10 , able to penetrate lungs; and PM 2. The authors of this macro study link the daily increase in these particles to the increase in daily mortality for all causes, and an increase in death due to respiratory and cardiovascular problems. It has been proven that air quality affects human health.
The effects of air pollution on human health
Air pollution is now the biggest environmental risk for early death, responsible for more than 6 million premature deaths each year from heart attacks, strokes, diabetes and respiratory diseases. Children, the elderly, people with existing diseases, and minority and low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to adverse health outcomes and economic impacts, such as missed work days, from exposure to air pollution. Research suggests that long term exposure to some pollutants increases the risk of emphysema more than smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. And recent studies show air pollution can impact mental health , worker productivity and even stock market performance. What we typically think of as "air pollution" is actually a mixture of small particles, including the below.
Environment and Health View all 15 Articles. One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels.
Human health is closely related to his environment. In general, polluted air is considered one of the major factors leading to many diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory disease and lung cancer for the people. Besides, air pollution adversely affects the animals and deteriorates the plant environment. The overarching objective of this review is to explore the previous researches regarding the causes and sources of air pollution, how to control it and its detrimental effects on human health. The definition of air pollution and its sources were introduced extensively.
pollutants pose serious health concerns. People exposed to high enough levels of certain air pollutants may experience: ▫ Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.
Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer.
Ground-level ozone is formed when volatile organic compounds VOCs and oxides of nitrogen NOx react with the sun's ultraviolet rays. The primary source of VOCs and NOx is mobile sources, including cars, trucks, buses, construction equipment and agricultural equipment. Ground-level ozone reaches its highest level during the afternoon and early evening hours. High levels occur most often during the summer months.
Metrics details. Traffic-related air pollution TRAP is one of the major sources of exposure in urban areas and has been associated with a wide range of adverse human health effects. The objective of this scoping review is to develop an evidence map of the epidemiological literature of the human health effects of exposure to TRAP, to support future reviews and assessments by Health Canada. DistillerSR will be used to manage the review process. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies in a two-part process title and abstract; full text for eligibility.
Пусти меня, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь говорить как можно спокойнее. Внезапно ее охватило ощущение опасности. - Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл. - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности. Что случилось с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Не бывает такой диагностики, которая длилась бы восемнадцать часов.
И Танкадо отдал это кольцо совершенно незнакомому человеку за мгновение до смерти? - с недоумением спросила Сьюзан. - Почему. Стратмор сощурил. - А ты как думаешь. И уже мгновение спустя ее осенило. Ее глаза расширились.
Хотела бы, Джабба, но я должна следить за своей талией. - Ну да? - Он хмыкнул. - Давай я тебе помогу. - Ах ты, пакостник. - Не знаю, что ты такое подумала.
Извини. Я не могу этого сделать. - Скрестив на груди руки, он вышел из ее кабинета.
Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня.