Criminal Justice Masterworks A History Of Ideas About Crime Law Police And Corrections Pdf
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- Social Censure and Critical Criminology
- 00 fm panzarella cx2 6/9/06 3:41 PM Page i. Criminal Justice Masterworks
- ISBN 13: 9781611634129
- Criminal Justice Masterworks - Carolina Academic .Criminal Justice Masterworks A History of Ideas
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Social Censure and Critical Criminology
Criminal justice, Administration of--philosophy. Criminal law-- History. Police administration-- Philosophy--History. Panzarella, Robert. Vona, Daniel O'Neal. Shaw and Henry D. Fogelson v. Charles Lindner for a thorough and insightful review of the entire manuscript. We thank William J. Chambliss, Robert M. Fogelson, Herman Goldstein, and William A. Westley not only for their masterworks but also for their assistance in composing the introductions to their works.
Most of all, we thank our students who have led us to new discoveries every time we ventured into these pages. However, when seeking those responsible for the flaws in this book, whether from ripping selections out of their contexts or from insipid introductions, the reader needs to look no further than the usual suspects Panzarella and Vona. It is also useful as a bri ef su rvey of great wri ti n gs in c riminal ju s ti ce for any adva n ced under gradu a te or beginning gradu a te stu den t or criminal ju s ti ce profe s s i on a l.
The ed i tors a pproach we aves toget h er three s trands of i n tell ectual pursu i t : an acqu a i n t a n ce with great wri ti n gs on cri m i n a l ju s ti ce, the pers pective provi ded by a history of i de a s, and the skills of c ri ti c a l t h i n k i n g. The sel ecti ons provi de a taste of classic works usu a lly known to stu dents on ly t h ro u gh tex tbook su m m a ri e s, s h ort excerpt s, or referen ces el s ewh ere.
Al t h o u gh t h ere are other anthologies wh i ch pre s ent sel ecti ons from some of these same classics in the field of c riminal ju s ti ce, t h ey of fer on ly very short sel ecti on s wh i ch are not su f fic i ent to give the stu dent a grasp of the work or a basis for c ri tical analysis of i t.
The sel ecti ons of fered here are ex ten s ive en o u gh to convey the main ide a s, d i s p l ay the logical and em p i rical fo u n d a ti ons of the work s, a n d a ll ow for cri tical thinking on the en du ring fundamental issues in the field of c riminal ju s ti ce. These masterworks in criminal justice are separated into four areas: criminology, legal studies, police studies, and correctional studies.
One could add other areas, such as victimology or forensic science. However, this is not intended to be an exhaustive or even comprehensive survey of the field of criminal justice. It is only a sampling of some of the most prominent works in the most prominent traditional areas of criminal justice studies. Hopefully, it will give the reader a handle on some masterworks and some material for critical thinking about the most important issues in the field.
The selections are set in the context of the history of ideas. Political, economic and social events provide a distant background for these masterworks. A Historical Introduction summarizes the history of ideas of justice prior to the Age of Enlightenment and the key ideas of the Age of Enlightenment itself. Short introductions to the various selections provide information about the authors and the surfacing of their ideas in the intellectual currents of their times.
Masterworks can be read on either of two levels. To appreciate them on a fairly simple level, one could read them only for the purpose of discovering what their authors wrote.
For example, one could read Beccaria to learn what his position was with regard to the death penalty. This would not be an especially challenging way to read, or teach, the masterworks. On a more sophisticated and more challenging level, one could read the masterworks as an exercise in critical thinking. On this level one would examine the specific arguments Beccaria presented in discussing the death penalty, what evidence he offered to support his arguments, and what assumptions he may have been making.
One of the hallmarks of a masterwork is that it sheds light on issues which remain urgent despite the passage of decades or even centuries. Masterworks encourage a critical analysis of ideas or practices which were significant at the time of their writing and remain significant today.
The enduring relevance of masterworks invites critical thinking on contemporary issues in criminal justice. The introduction to each selection alerts the reader to some of the persisting issues related to each of the readings in this book. The editors of this anthology believe that critical thinking requires at least three ingredients. First is a firm grip on an author s ideas. Ideas go beyond mere facts known then or now. Ideas consist of interpretations of the facts, the articulation of relationships between facts or events, and the implications of facts as perceived by the author.
Sometimes the facts presented in a masterwork were discovered by the author; sometimes the facts were taken from research done by others. Particular facts may even have been wrong, yet an author s ideas may be valid on the basis of other facts to be found elsewhere.
What is special about a masterwork is how the author has used diverse facts to generate new ideas. The selections have been deliberately chosen to highlight the new ideas expressed in the masterwork.
The second ingred i ent in cri tical thinking is an assessment of an aut h or s i deas in terms of the evi den ce for the ideas pre s en ted by the aut h or. The evi den ce pre s en ted to su pport an idea may be some form of re a s on i n g, h i s tor-. What con s ti tutes accept a bl e evi den ce has been different at different mom ents in history and va ries from one discipline to another.
The type of evi den ce and kind of re a s oning used in a law re ading may be qu i te different from the type of evi den ce and kind of thinking used in a cri m i n o l ogy re ading from a social scien ce stu dy. No m a t ter what the re ader s own style of re a s oning or taste in types of evi den ce, c ri tical thinking requ i res the re ader to know and ju d ge the adequ acy of a n a ut h or s evi den ce and re a s oning for each key ide a.
It is the pre s en t a ti on of the evi den ce along with the ideas wh i ch makes cri tical thinking po s s i bl e. Thus the sel ecti ons in this co ll ecti on inclu de wh a tever pre s en t a ti on of eviden ce for the ideas was inclu ded in a masterwork.
Finally, critical thinking calls for digging out the unstated assumptions underlying an author s ideas. Discovering assumptions may be the most challenging aspect of critical thinking. Assumptions are notions so basic that an author takes them for granted, and so does the reader usually. The assumptions are common beliefs which are such an integral part of a culture that they are seldom held up for inspection and rarely challenged.
For example, in a culture where it is generally agreed and therefore assumed that a legal system is a system of justice, it is rare for someone to demand an explanation of how a legal system can be called justice. The assumptions made by authors, and often by readers too, are assumptions about human nature, about the causes of behavior, about society, about the necessity or adequacy of institutions or systems, about the effectiveness of common practices, and so on.
Often the author of a masterwork has challenged basic assumptions of the world in which they lived, and it requires as much fresh thinking now for a reader to challenge assumptions of the author and of the world in which we live.
The introductions to the selections do not deprive a reader of the opportunity to disco ver an author s assumptions. But the introductions do point a finger in the direction of some of the assumptions which may underlie the main ideas in a masterwork. It is, then, with these three impulses that the reader should proceed: an appetite for some great works in the field of criminal justice, an eye on the history of ideas, and an urge to do some critical thinking.
But to gra s p h ow radical these new ideas were it is nece s s a ry to understand how peop l e t h o u ght abo ut crime and ju s ti ce in earl i er ti m e s. O rd i n a ri ly ideas evo lve over the co u rse of m a ny cen tu ries or even thousands of ye a rs. However, the Age of E n l i gh ten m ent was a peri od of on ly abo ut two hu n d red ye a rs, ro u gh ly the seven teenth and ei gh teenth cen tu ri e s.
It was essen ti a lly the time wh en Eu rope a n s began to take a stri ct ly ra ti onal approach to everyt h i n g, relying on re a s on ra t h er than rel i gi on and trad i ti on.
It was an intell ectual revo luti on because inste ad of adding to earl i er ide a s, it was a time wh en earl i er ideas were rej ected to a large ex tent and rep l aced with a whole new way of l ooking at everyt h i n g. Changing Concepts of Crime and Justice Primitive societies consisted of small tribes or clans.
In a society which lived by hunting and gathering food, a clan might consist of about thirty people with a patriarch or matriarch. With the introduction of farming a greater number of people could live in one place, and then there might be a more formal leader or a council of elders. People knew what was right and what was wrong from custom. There were no formal laws, and there were no lawmakers. There was only the ordinary way of living in the clan. The first laws in any sense were the decisions made by deciding disputes.
Disputes within a clan or tribe were usually settled by the head of the clan or by a group of elders. If t h ere was an act of vi o l en ce bet ween indivi duals from different tri bes or cl a n s, it was likely to tri gger a bl ood feu d. Ju s ti ce was a clan matter, not an indivi dual matter. If a pers on from clan A kill ed a pers on from clan B, t h en som e- body from clan B would reven ge the act by killing som eone from clan A.
It was not nece s s a ry to kill the indivi dual who com m i t ted the cri m e. The crime co u l d be aven ged by anybody from clan B killing anybody from clan A. Th e m a rk of a hero in ancient saga s, su ch as the tale of Beow u l f, was his re adiness to t a ke ven ge a n ce for his cl a n, k n owing full well that by doing so he prob a bly condem n ed himsel f to become the next to die in the cycle of ven ge a n ce.
Su ch was the custom and unwri t ten law of m a ny ancient soc i eti e s. Di f ferent clans lived in xiii. Justice meant vengeance for a wrong. This idea of justice was refined with the maxim, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. This was a more refined sense of justice than an unspecified demand for unlimited vengeance.
This maxim was intended to keep the violence of vengeance from escalating. It meant, Only one eye for one eye, and only one tooth for one tooth. Excessive vengeance itself became a wrong. Equal retribution was justice; excessive retribution was injustice. This was a more advanced concept of justice. A revolution in the idea of justice occurred when justice based on personal or clan revenge was outlawed entirely and replaced by punishment administered by government. This development may have been prompted by several factors.
The practice of allowing people to get their own personal justice may have seemed inefficient because sometimes the innocent were not capable of getting their own revenge, and sometimes the revenge set off a chain reaction of people from different clans taking turns killing one another without any way to stop it. Also, as societies grew larger, personal revenge as justice may have become less necessary and less practical.
The idea of the indivi dual is itsel f an ide a wh i ch has evo lved very slowly and is sti ll not fully accepted. In ancient soc i- eties people were seen by others, and by them s elve s, as part of t h eir clan ra t h er than as indivi du a l s. O n e s good or bad fortune was on ly a share in the good or bad fortune of the cl a n.
00 fm panzarella cx2 6/9/06 3:41 PM Page i. Criminal Justice Masterworks
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Criminal justice masterworks: a history of ideas about crime, law, police, and corrections / [edited by] Robert Panzarella and Daniel O'Neal Vona. pages cm.
ISBN 13: 9781611634129
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Criminal justice, Administration of--philosophy. Criminal law-- History. Police administration-- Philosophy--History.
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Criminal Justice Masterworks - Carolina Academic .Criminal Justice Masterworks A History of Ideas
Criminal Justice Masterworks: A History of Ideas About Crime, Law, Police, and Corrections
ISBN alk. Criminal justice, Administration of--History. Criminal justice, Ad-ministration of--Philosophy. Criminal law--History. Police administration--Philosophy--History. Panzarella, Robert. Vona, Daniel.
Ищите. Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл.
В феврале того года, когда Энсею исполнилось двенадцать, его приемным родителям позвонили из токийской фирмы, производящей компьютеры, и предложили их сыну-калеке принять участие в испытаниях новой клавиатуры, которую фирма сконструировала для детей с физическими недостатками. Родители согласились. Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися.