Political Science Terms And Definitions Pdf

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Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain. We will discuss the changing notion of politics over time and across cultures as we work towards a definition. This unit will lay the framework for the remaining five units in this course. A confident and solid grasp of the principles presented in this unit is therefore crucial to your progression through the remainder of the course.

Category:Political science terminology

Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain. We will discuss the changing notion of politics over time and across cultures as we work towards a definition. This unit will lay the framework for the remaining five units in this course.

A confident and solid grasp of the principles presented in this unit is therefore crucial to your progression through the remainder of the course.

You will find, for example, that each of the five subsequent units will conclude with a discussion of how the principles you have learned and the issues you have identified apply to a contemporary, real-life situation. You will need to draw from the foundational material you have learned in this unit in order to respond to these applied situations. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the field of political science, its cross-disciplinary connections, and the various fields and sub-fields of study within the discipline.

Read section As we just read in the previous article, to study politics is to "study power — who gets what, and how". This section explains that power can be conceptualized both in terms of "domination" and "collective capacity". In other words, "power" can refer to the ability to get someone to do something they normally would not do, but it also refers to the capacity institutions and people have to act or create.

Authority is "accepted power". People accept the authority of a government or ruler when they believe that the government or ruler can rightly and appropriately exercise power over them. Accepting the authority of the government gives the government legitimacy. This reading introduces the three primary types of authority: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal.

Why do you think legitimacy is such a critical component in the ability to govern effectively? What happens when a government is not seen as legitimate by its citizens? Since "power" is such an important concept in political science, political scientists have categorized power into three categories: hard power, soft power, and "smart" power.

Hard power is the most traditional conceptualization of power and involves force or coercion. Soft power, popularized by scholar and U. This article offers critiques of the concept of soft power in contemporary international relations.

Hallam questions whether the debate over hard and soft power is outdated, particularly considering the Obama administration's emerging emphasis on "smart power" and the challenges of national security in an unstable international system.

As you read, consider the importance of power in political science and think about how power can be exercised. What do you think is the most effective: hard, soft, or smart power? This section discusses the three authority types as defined by Max Weber, one of the foremost social theorists of the twentieth century. Weber outlines three primary types of authority: traditional authority, rational-legal authority, and charismatic authority.

As you read, ask yourself the following questions:. This handout is designed to teach you how to conduct original political science research. While you won't be asked to write a research paper, this handout provides important information on the "scientific" approach used by political scientists.

Pay particularly close attention to the section that answers the question "what is scientific about political science? If you were going to conduct research in biology or chemistry, what would you do? You would probably create a hypothesis, and then design an experiment to test your hypothesis.

Based on the results of your experiment, you would draw conclusions. Political scientists follow similar procedures. Like a scientist who researches biology or chemistry, political scientists rely on objectivity, data, and procedure to draw conclusions.

This article explains the process of operationalizing variables. Why is that an important step in social science research? This article mentions the two primary approaches to social science research, quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative research involves the use of data from many cases and uses statistical calculations to draw conclusions from these data sets. In the qualitative approach, a researcher will provide an in-depth analysis of a more limited number of cases. The previous article explored how social sciences and political science follow scientific methods in research and data gathering.

This article reflects the ongoing debate within academia over the ways in which the study of politics should be conducted.

Political science does not merely deal with academic or scholarly subjects; it can have significant practical applications. According to this article, what are some of the barriers to making political science research more "relevant" to contemporary policymaking?

The study of political science often involves difficult and philosophical topics. The Saylor Introduction to Political Science reading you read at the beginning of this unit explained that political theory involves the study of politics from a philosophical perspective. Political theory "addresses such issues as the nature of political authority, the relationship of the state to the individual, and citizens' obligations and responsibility to one another.

Political theory seeks to interpret abstract concepts such as liberty, justice, human rights, and power". Constitutionalism and political representation are two important perspectives in political philosophy that seek to address some of the above issues.

In this first article, you will read about constitutionalism. According to constitutionalism, laws and written constitutions should be what binds and controls the power of government. In other words, the central tenet of constitutionalism is that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law.

Pay close attention to some of the common criticisms of constitutionalism. Do you think constitutionalism is a practical or democratic approach to governance? According to the perspective of political representation, the process of citizen representation in government should be the source of government authority, and should be the way in which government power is controlled.

The article outlines some of the different ways in which political actors choose to reflect or represent the will of the people. Which do you think would be more effective or democratic, constitutionalism or political representation? Skip to main content. Side panel. Log in or Sign up. Getting Started. Discussion Forums.

Course Introduction. Unit 1: Foundational Concepts of Politics. Unit 2: Participation and Public Opinion. Unit 3: Ideologies. Unit 4: The State. Unit 5: Political Institutions. Unit 6: International Politics. Study Guides. Course Feedback Survey. Certificate Final Exam. About Saylor Academy. College Credit Partners. Log in or Sign up to track your course progress, gain access to final exams, and get a free certificate of completion!

Unit 1: Foundational Concepts of Politics Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain.

Completing this unit should take you approximately 11 hours. Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: situate the academic discipline of political science within the broader field of social science; define politics, power, authority, and legitimacy; analyze the debate over political science as a "scientific" discipline; explain the concepts of constitutionalism and political representation; illustrate the rational-legal, charismatic, and traditional forms of legitimacy; and compare and contrast smart power, soft power, and hard power.

Introduction to Political Science Page. Government and Politics URL. Power and Authority URL. As you read, ask yourself the following questions: Which type of authority leads to the most stable form of government, and why? Which type leads to the least stable form of government? How can one form of authority eventually lead to another? For example, in how can charismatic authority evolve into traditional authority?

Why is the U. Can either of the other two types of authority apply? Research in Political Science Page. Constitutionalism URL. Representation in Politics URL. Unit 1 Assessment Quiz. Take this assessment to see how well you understood this unit. It is just for practice! You will see the correct answers when you submit your answers. Use this to help you study for the final exam!

You can take this assessment as many times as you want, whenever you want.

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

This glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences. Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral sciences. A Dictionary of Social Research Methods. Institutional Review Board. Colorado College; Glossary of Key Terms.

Every clique has its own language — an insider's jargon that people outside the group don't always understand. Filmmakers talk about "panning" and "fading. What exactly do politicians mean when they talk about a "lame duck" or a "rubber chicken"? What is "red tape" and who is the "Silent Majority"? This glossary is designed to demystify some of these terms and explain their origins. The definitions that follow, with background drawn from Safire's New Political Dictionary , should help you understand political talk a little better the next time you hear it on the evening news or read about it online.

Political science , the systematic study of governance by the application of empirical and generally scientific methods of analysis. As traditionally defined and studied, political science examines the state and its organs and institutions. The contemporary discipline , however, is considerably broader than this, encompassing studies of all the societal, cultural, and psychological factors that mutually influence the operation of government and the body politic. Although political science borrows heavily from the other social sciences , it is distinguished from them by its focus on power —defined as the ability of one political actor to get another actor to do what it wants—at the international, national, and local levels. Although political science overlaps considerably with political philosophy , the two fields are distinct. Political philosophy is concerned primarily with political ideas and values, such as rights, justice , freedom, and political obligation whether people should or should not obey political authority ; it is normative in its approach i. In contrast, political science studies institutions and behaviour, favours the descriptive over the normative, and develops theories or draws conclusions based on empirical observations, which are expressed in quantitative terms where possible.


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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

Wednesday, November 23, Jamshed Iqbal. Political Science Terminology. A Marxist term referring to those who own the means of production.

The following pages are in this category, out of total. This list may not reflect recent changes learn more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Politics and Political Science

Example: The government of the United States is a democracy established by the Constitution.

Political Science: Terms and Concepts

Сообщения поступали мгновенно, и их нельзя было отследить. Он торопливо повернул выключатель. Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы.

 Ключ, Чед. Бринкерхофф покраснел до корней волос и повернулся к мониторам. Ему хотелось чем-то прикрыть эти картинки под потолком, но. Он был повсюду, постанывающий от удовольствия и жадно слизывающий мед с маленьких грудей Кармен Хуэрты. ГЛАВА 66 Беккер пересек зал аэропорта и подошел к туалету, с грустью обнаружив, что дверь с надписью CABALLEROS перегорожена оранжевым мусорным баком и тележкой уборщицы, уставленной моющими средствами и щетками.

 Я попросил его не звонить мне, пока он не найдет кольцо. - Почему? - удивилась Сьюзан.  - А если ему нужна помощь. Стратмор пожал плечами. - Отсюда я не в состоянии ему помочь - ему придется полагаться лишь на. А потом, я не хочу говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания.


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Glossary of Research Terms

 - Всю статистику по работе ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о мутациях. Ты займешься Третьим узлом. Сотрешь всю электронную почту Хейла. Все, что относится к его переписке с Танкадо, где упоминается Цифровая крепость. - Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла. И все переформатирую.

 Таблица умножения, - сказал Беккер. При чем здесь таблица умножения? - подумала Сьюзан.  - Что он хочет этим сказать. - Четыре на шестнадцать, - повторил профессор. - Лично я проходил это в четвертом классе. Сьюзан вспомнила стандартную школьную таблицу. Четыре на шестнадцать.

 Нет. Я сказала, что нашла его в парке. Я думала, что она мне заплатит, но ничего не вышло. Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться.

 - Мы можем принять участие в аукционе. Стратмор покачал головой: - Танкадо дал нам шанс. Это совершенно ясно. Тем не менее риск велик: если нас обнаружат, это, в сущности, будет означать, что он своим алгоритмом нас напугал. Нам придется публично признать не только то, что мы имеем ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но и то, что Цифровая крепость неприступна.

 Ja, - признался он. - Вам известно, что в Испании это противозаконно. - Nein, - солгал немец.

Клянусь, что я тебя пальцем не трону. Сьюзан пыталась вырваться из его рук, и он понял, что его ждут новые проблемы.

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