Economic Importance And Problems Of Field Pea Production In Ethiopia Pdf

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Dry Field Pea

Received: January 01, Published: ,. Citation: DOI:. Download PDF. Lentil is among the oldest domesticated crop in the world. It is a cool season food legume playing a significant role in human and animal nutrition as well as soil fertility maintenance. It can be grown in rotation to cereal crops which promote sustainable cereal-based production systems with a potential of fixing free nitrogen reached up to kg ha It is the most important crop because of its high protein content and fast cooking characteristic.

Lentils have an indeterminate growth habit and flowering begins from the lowest branches, gradually moving up the plant and continuing until harvest. It is well adapted to various soil types and also considered as drought-resistant crop. But it is susceptible to excessive water stress. World lentil production has been increasing in recent years with most of the production coming from North American and Asian countries.

Productivity of lentil in Ethiopia varies from region to region due to variation in environment and biotic factors. Currently, lentil is considered as a cash crop that fetches higher price compared to most of the cereals and pulses grown in Ethiopia. It is often claimed that, the internal local market seriously competes with the external market.

Lentil has huge potential of reducing poverty and contributes to sustainable economic development in Ethiopia. On the other hand, the ever increasing population and ever changing client demand of lentil is the good opportunity for boosting production at farm level.

In Ethiopia, lentil has received little attention in research, development and external fund attraction. It is also necessary to develop recommendations for organic and inorganic fertilizers that are most suitable for lentil production. These recommendations will depend on soil maps and controlled trials of blended fertilizers to determine the optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients.

Providing of effective extension service is inevitable to break the existing resistance by awareness creation through demonstration at farmers training centers. Complementary lentil technologies including tillage frequency, seed treatment, planting techniques, genetically improve seed, pests and weed management practices have to be provide to boost production.

Indeterminate growth habits of lentil makes not to mature at the same time and brought sever shattering problems before harvest. Harvesting while it is still green is recommended as one option to reduce shattering. Research on the development and promotion of tools harvester that would enable farmers to harvest lentil on time is important.

The establishment of strong linkage among producers, suppliers, consumers, processors, whole sellers, and retailers is inevitable to begin value chain. A review has been made for boosting production and creating the demand for the use of improved technology keeping in view the enormous contribution of lentil for food and nutritional security.

Keywords: lentil, production, potential use, agro-technology, constraints and future strategies. Lentil Lens culinaris Medik is one of the most ancient annual food crops that have been grown as an important food source for over 8,years.

The spread of lentil from the center of origin has been accompanied by the selection of traits important for adaptation to environments that can be climate, soil and their impact on season length, abiotic and biotic stresses. Lentil plays a significant role in human and animal nutrition and in maintenance and improvement of soil fertility.

It is cultivated for its seed and mostly eaten as split. It can be used as a main dish, side dish, or in salads. Seeds can be fried and seasoned for consumption but sometimes difficult to cook because of the hard seed coat those results from excessive drying. Cultivated lentil is thought to have been originated and first domesticated in western Asia and then introduced into the Indo-Gengetic plain around BC. It is now cultivated in most subtropical and also in Northern hemisphere such as Canada and Pacific Northwest regions.

Lentil belongs to the genus Lens of the Viceae tribe in the Legumnosae Fabaceae family, commonly known as the legume family. Lentil plants are typically short, but can range from 20 to 75cm in height, depending on growing conditions.

The first two nodes on the stem develop below, or at the soil surface and are known as scale nodes. Plants can have single stems or many branches depending upon the population in the field. Lentil plants have an indeterminate growth habit. Flowering begins on the lowest branches, gradually moving up the plant and continuing until harvest. This indeterminate growth habit is most predominant in late maturing varieties, but all current lentil varieties have indeterminate growth habit.

Flowers of lentil are self-pollinated 22 and first few flowers on the main stem may abort. This occurs if conditions favour excessive vegetative growth over seed production, such as good moisture combined with high nitrogen fertility. Out of the total increased volume of global production in recent years, the most is coming mainly from Canada and India Figure 1.

The total lentil cultivated area in the world is estimated around 4. This increment was stimulated by greater improvement in demand of both domestic and international market of the crop. Even though lentil producing nations are striding in skyrocketing of their production to fill domestic demand and overwhelming of the export market but still the supply gap remains wide which is aggravated by rapid population growth, ever changing client demand and limitation in genetic improvement of the crop.

The enrichment of lentil with high protein makes it the prefer pulse crop to rural poor household in the world who are not afford expensive animal products. It efficiently complements the cereal rich food in making nourishing meal by balancing the amino acid and micronutrient content of the diet. Enhancement of productivity of lentil is very vital as most of the poor people in the world are depend on it for protein supply to meet their food, nutritional, and healthy benefits.

Lentil cultivation is expected to increase rapidly in the future due to its demand for consumption and agronomic ability to assimilate atmospheric nitrogen. Lentil is amongst the principal cool season food legumes. It is widely grown in areas having an altitude range of 1,,meters above sea level with annual rainfall ranging from ,mm in Ethiopia.

Lentil is considered as drought-resistant crop that can tolerate low annual rainfall distribution even in the range of mm. Lentil is mainly grown in the highlands of Ethiopia where rainfall is usually high. The second and third plowing operations are undertaken in mid-June and early August, respectively.

Legumes have always been critical components of the agro-ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable plant proteins. Their ability to grow in Nitrogen poor soils and their contribution to the pool of soil nitrogen that can be used by succeeding crops.

The level of Nitrogen fixation by legumes varies considerably both spatially and temporally in response to host of environmental and ecological factors. Matus et al. The study by Saxena et al. This implies about 13, ton of N can be fixed annually in Ethiopia. Moreover, it offers an indispensable additional advantage emanating from its unique property in restoring and maintaining soil fertility. Nitrogen fixation of lentil is highly influenced by the type of cropping system followed and it is greater in highly diversified crop rotation than in less diversified crop rotations.

The crop is generally grown in rotation with cereals to break cereal disease cycles and to maintain soil nitrogen, thus reducing the demand of other cereal crops for nitrogen fertilizers. Fertilizers affect the root development and biomass production of plants. This could have an effect on nitrogen fixation of legumes. Hence quantification of the effect of fertilizers on nitrogen fixation of legumes is essential and is given an attention.

The results showed no significant yield differences among the treatments due to the effect of nitrogen fertilizer application. There was no good nodulation at either of the location, which may be due to local soil factor. Small scale farmers in Ethiopia grow various crops for own consumption and economic benefits. Pulses are among the crops produced in all the regions of the country following cereals in terms of total production and area coverage.

It is one of the heavily consumed pulse crops in Ethiopia and is a popular ingredient of every day diet in the majority of households. It is consumed in different forms of preparation split or whole grain stew form Asambusa and sometimes as roasted or boiled whole grain snack alone or often mixed with cereals or other pulses.

Lentil production is mainly depends on soil type, altitude and agro-ecologic conditions. In Ethiopia, Its production is not mechanized and produced by small holder farmers with fragmented plots of land mainly for household consumption.

Ethiopia is the leading producer of lentil in African followed by Morocco, Tunisia and seventh in the world Figure 1. Ethiopia covers Ethiopian farmers have managed to double their production of lentil in the past decade but still the current national average productivity is found to be 1. However, improved varieties can yield 1. Currently, the productivity of the crop has change significantly due to the release of few improved varieties and with modernization of crop husbandry practices in the farming community but still lentil is low in productivity compared to other legumes growing in the nation Figure 5.

Lentil research was formally started in and DebreZeit Agricultural Research Center was assigned to coordinate the national lentil research program. Variety R, which was performing well in the highlands where crops growth period was long was hit by frost in two seasons.

Hence it was removed from the production and followed by Chalew. Based on the assessment carried out by Setotaw60 in central high land of Ethiopia, adoption of improved lentil varieties was found to be below expectations. In general, the limited adoption of improved lentil varieties is attributed to the current incidence of disease and insect problems.

Especially, disease is main threat of lentil production which sometimes causes a complete crop failure. The other major factor hampering the wider dissemination of the available lentil varieties is the current seed production problem. Lentil is dominantly produced by smallholder farmers based on their indigenous knowledge. Ethiopia was among the five top lentil producing countries of the world in the early s. This was happened due to controlled market and fixed price by the so-called communist military regime.

Annual lentil production has grown from 35, The increase in production, however, has not created a substantial surplus for export as most of the product is consumed locally. The demand for this commodity both in local and international markets has increased significantly in recent years.

It is often claimed that the internal local market seriously competes with the external market. Ethiopia has improved its lentil export since However the strong demand and high price in the local market heavily competes with the international market, so that its export share is low as compared to other pulse crops Figure 7 Figure 8.

The country has exported 5, and 17, tons in and respectively Figure 9 , as compared to , tons in between

Plants & Agriculture Research

Oelke 1 , E. Oplinger 2 , C. Hanson 1 , D. Davis 1 , D. Putnam 1 , E. Fuller 1 , and C.

Received: January 01, Published: ,. Citation: DOI:. Download PDF. Lentil is among the oldest domesticated crop in the world. It is a cool season food legume playing a significant role in human and animal nutrition as well as soil fertility maintenance. It can be grown in rotation to cereal crops which promote sustainable cereal-based production systems with a potential of fixing free nitrogen reached up to kg ha It is the most important crop because of its high protein content and fast cooking characteristic.

Use of this Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Special Issues. Contact Us. Change code. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Field pea is an important low-input break crops throughout the highlands of Ethiopia.

PDF | On-farm evaluation and demonstration of different field pea production packages (IFPP, Economic data (production costs and benefits).

Dry Field Pea

Field pea Pisum sativum L. In Ethiopia, it is the second most important legume crop next to faba bean Vicia faba L. However, the production is threatened by pea weevil Bruchus pisorum L.

Agriculture in Ethiopia is the foundation of the country's economy, accounting for half of gross domestic product GDP , Ethiopia 's agriculture is plagued by periodic drought , soil degradation [1] caused by overgrazing , deforestation , high levels of taxation and poor infrastructure making it difficult and expensive to get goods to market. Yet agriculture is the country's most promising resource. A potential exists for self-sufficiency in grains and for export development in livestock, grains, vegetables, and fruits. As many as 4.

22: РУЧНОЕ ОТКЛЮЧЕНИЕ ГЛАВА 35 Беккер в шоке смотрел на Росио. - Вы продали кольцо. Девушка кивнула, и рыжие шелковистые волосы скользнули по ее плечам. Беккер молил Бога, чтобы это оказалось неправдой. - Рего… Но… Она пожала плечами и произнесла по-испански: - Девушке возле парка.

В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида. Ее молитва была проста: она просила Бога защитить любимого человека. Не будучи религиозной, она не рассчитывала услышать ответ на свою молитву, но вдруг почувствовала внезапную вибрацию на груди и испуганно подскочила, однако тут же поняла: вибрация вовсе не была рукой Божьей - она исходила из кармана стратморовского пиджака.

Простыня на его половине кровати была холодной. Дэвид исчез. Значит, приснилось, подумала Сьюзан и села в кровати.


  1. Merle B. 31.05.2021 at 00:58

    The production and productivity of field pea crop in Amhara region depends mainly on the un availability of quality seed supply system for a number of improved varieties.

  2. Chairenetming 31.05.2021 at 09:06

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  4. Joshua V. 01.06.2021 at 14:33

    The existence of diverse farming systems, socio-economics, cultures and Low soil fertility remains a problem in many areas; especially as traditional land Field pea is the second most important legume crop in Ethiopia after faba bean in​.