Sensory Evaluation Of Food Principles And Practices Pdf

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As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. However, the number of studies conducted on these types of products with good quality sensory testing is limited. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed sensory and consumer research on specialty and unique food products.

Are They Interval Scales? What is a "Valid" Scale? A Cumulative probabilities of the standard normal distribution. Entry area 1-a under the standard normal curve from -co to z l-a Table F. E Critical values of U for a one-tailed alpha at or a two-tailed alpha at Table F.

Sensory Evaluation Of Food Principles And Practices

As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. However, the number of studies conducted on these types of products with good quality sensory testing is limited. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed sensory and consumer research on specialty and unique food products.

Various factors such as manufacturing, processing, or preparation methods of the samples influence the characteristics of food products and their acceptability. Sensory descriptive analysis can be used to distinguish characteristics that highlight these differences, and consumer research is used to identify factors that affect acceptability. Familiarity with product attributes contributes to consumer acceptance.

When cross-cultural consumer research is conducted to support product market placement and expansion, sensory descriptive analysis should be conducted in parallel to define product characteristics. This allows better prediction of descriptors that influence consumer acceptability, leading to appropriate product modification and successful introduction.

In the field of food science, sensory science constitutes a discipline dealing with human sensory perceptions and affective responses to various kinds of foods, beverages, and their components that evolved from the need for scientifically sound and systematic sensory evaluation [ 1 ]. The conception of sensory science has been attributed to the development of consumer or hedonic food acceptance methodologies that were established in the s by the U.

Army Corps of Engineers [ 2 ]. Depending on the subject of the sensory science research, various methods may be used; among the sensory evaluation methods, sensory descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability testing are the most frequently used. Sensory descriptive analysis involves the discrimination and description of both qualitative and quantitative sensory factors of products by trained panels [ 4 , 5 ].

By using these kinds of methods, it is possible to pinpoint differences among product variants, conditions, identify drivers of consumer hedonic responses, and examine relationships between sensory and chemical characteristics [ 1 , 9 ].

Numerous studies related to the sensory descriptive analysis of food products or sensory methodologies have been published and the use of sensory methods related to product research and development has been described [ 10 ]. However, the number of papers reporting the results of good quality sensory descriptive analysis of ethnic, specialty, and exotic food products reflecting traditional and authentic food cultures is limited.

Ethnic food can be defined narrowly as foods originating from a heritage and culture of an ethnic group who use their knowledge of local ingredients. More broadly, ethnic or traditional foods are representative of a cuisine of an ethnic group or country that is culturally and socially distinct and whose foods may be accepted by consumers outside of the respective ethnic group [ 15 ]. Ethnic foods provide consumers from other culinary traditions with opportunities to experience new cultures and cuisines [ 16 ].

Consumer acceptability represents one of the most important tests for sensory analysis and often involves a scaling method to measure the degree of liking or disliking of products using naive consumers [ 3 ]. Among those, food acceptance constitutes an essential outcome of the interaction between humans and foods [ 28 ].

Food acceptance may be affected by food habits, attitude, and beliefs [ 29 , 30 ], with culture i. Differences in the food environment and dietary experience across cultures may influence the preference for sensory characteristics of food products [ 33 ].

Similarly, familiarity with food products also may affect food choice [ 34 ] and food beliefs and potential acceptability [ 35 ]. Numerous consumer studies have been conducted on the acceptability of commercial food products as well as categories of food and various consumer methods, perceptions, emotions, and cross-cultural studies [ 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ].

As globalization progresses, it has become easier to participate in and appreciate other cultures and many cultural traditions are being shared. This has led to an increasing number of food-savvy consumers and the trend for once-unfamiliar cuisines and flavors to become basic and standard elements in day-to-day diets of other cultures [ 54 ].

In particular, younger consumers are already accustomed to certain food products that may have been regarded previously as unique or novel.

For example, concomitant with the increased exposure to ethnic or traditional foods, consumers enthusiastically use various kinds of spices to enhance the flavor of their dishes.

In particular, in the U. The importance of not only spices however also other unique or special food products is growing in accordance with globalization and consumer needs. However, many more such foods exist than those that have already attained general awareness.

It is necessary to characterize these unique international food products to better understand and accommodate consumer demands for unfamiliar food products. In particular, no reviews have been published on sensory studies regarding such food products. The aim of the present review is, therefore, to describe and summarize the high-quality descriptive studies and consumer research that is currently available for special and unique food products such as traditional or ethnic foods.

Accordingly, we will compare the conducted research that is based on the following perspectives: sample type and number and methods or procedure of descriptive and consumer studies. Data analysis and results will also be briefly compared between studies. Hundreds of papers were searched because of the wide range of keywords, although only a limited number of these evaluated traditional or ethnic foods as samples. All selected studies comprised research papers written in English and did not include any textbooks or papers written in different languages.

A total of 34 studies were reviewed for sensory descriptive analysis research using special food products. Table 1 shows the categories of the samples that were used and the corresponding reference articles. Food samples could be categorized into three broad groups of a beverages, b sauces, pastes, and dressings, and c a group of miscellaneous 20 other specific traditional food items that were difficult to categorize.

Each category is discussed in detail in the following sections. In the beverage category, descriptive analyses of rooibos and green tea were included. Although the tea market is growing, we considered that rooibos and green tea are still classified as ethnic foods compared to black tea. A sensory wheel for rooibos was developed by Koch et al. Those authors used a total of 69 samples evaluated by nine panelists with extensive experience on descriptive analysis.

They first developed descriptors during the training sessions and then 27 terms were selected for inclusion in the sensory wheel based on their relevance. After testing, 17 attributes were eventually selected for efficient sensory profiling by grouping and eliminating descriptors.

The suggested application of the sensory wheel was for use for the quality control of rooibos tea. For full profiling of rooibos tea, more descriptors might be needed [ 18 ].

Jolley et al. Approximately nine to 10 trained female panelists, most of whom had previous experience on rooibos evaluation, participated and a total of tea samples were assessed using the 17 characteristics developed by Koch et al. Understanding the results of the study was suggested as helping to understand product segments, opening up the opportunity for marketing niche products especially at the global level. In the case of green tea, a greater number of studies have been conducted, likely reflecting increased awareness and consumption by global consumers worldwide.

Lee and Chambers [ 17 ] examined differences among green teas from different countries and the correlation with consumer data using six panelists performing a sensory descriptive analysis on six samples using 18 attributes. These findings have the potential to explain the differences among samples from different production areas, processing methods, or with different flavor characteristics. They used a total of green tea samples to generate descriptors that could distinguish all kinds of green tea samples.

Specifically, 31 attributes were generated by six highly trained panelists who had more than h of general descriptive training and averaged more than h of sensory descriptive testing. They used the flavor profile method, which usually involves a smaller number of panelists compared to other sensory descriptive methods.

The consensus procedure was used however the original flavor profile method was modified by using a 0—15 scale. Subsequently, those authors further analyzed the data to cluster green teas based on their flavor profiles and found that the origin influenced flavors through a combination of varietal differences, growing conditions, and processing variations [ 57 ].

They noted that their study could be used as a marketing tool for consumer segments for green tea so that consumers would be able to select teas that met their specific sensory preferences. Those authors also identified flavor change during storage using two green tea samples with five different storage durations [ 58 ], suggesting that the tea retailer must consider the type of packaging of green tea in order to maintain its quality during the distribution period.

In addition, other research groups also worked on green tea. Lee et al. They were attempting to create a method that would minimize possible bias caused by the changes in brewing temperature that could result in differences in volatile compounds of the tea. They further evaluated decaffeinated green teas as samples to ascertain the product market of decaffeinated beverages potential [ 61 ].

In this category, soy sauce, Eshabwe Ghee sauce , Gochujang Korean chili paste , soybean paste, and Danish honey were included for review. In the case of sauce or paste, different characteristics were evaluated in different countries depending on the characteristics of the product. It is likely that the foods within this category may reflect specific food cultures of each country.

Soy sauce has become a widely used sauce originating from Asian countries. Jeong et al. However, that study had limited samples. Thus, the developed lexicon only had eight descriptors that were similar to those found in a later study by Cherdchu et al. Those attributes were alcohol, caramel, chemical, fermented, metallic, pungent, salty, and sour. Cultural differences, sample composition, or a difference in the range of samples chosen may be the reason for the difference in the lexicon.

The article by Cherdchu et al. The study included the participation of panelists from Thailand and the U. In particular, they mentioned that language and culture constituted factors that limited the ability to describe certain characteristics, although they found ways to adapt to language issues by emphasizing the importance of using standard references to conduct well-communicated evaluations in cross-cultural studies.

Imamura [ 64 ] later conducted a study of mostly Japanese soy sauce samples that established 88 sensory descriptors, of which many were the same descriptors as those provided by Cherdchu et al. A flavor wheel of soy sauce was developed to facilitate sensory evaluation and communication regarding sample qualities. In a follow-up study by Pujchakarn et al. Soy sauce also was used as a sample for the investigation of the effects of different types of carriers [ 66 ].

That study showed changes in the flavor of soy sauce when used with differences in carriers such as rice, soup broth, and meat. Eshabwe Ghee sauce comprises a traditional salty pudding-like condiment prepared from ghee or butter in western Uganda, eastern Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi [ 67 ].

Mukisa and Kiwanuka [ 67 ] established 15 characteristics with 10 panelists and evaluated the quality of samples. The developed descriptors consisted of not only flavor however also quality attributes such as soggy, musty, and stale. They considered that standardization of the food made following traditional processes crucial. Their results may be helpful for manufacturers to standardize Eshabwe processing methods to ensure product consistency. Gochujang Korean chili paste was evaluated by Kim et al.

Their aim was to investigate the characteristics of different Gochujang made by various producers and to determine any correlation with consumer age segments differing.

Gochujang dressing, a similar product, was studied by Hong et al. The terminology of their study was used to find drivers of consumer preference and it was mentioned that an understanding of the flavors of traditional foods was important for this purpose. Soybean paste is a well-known food in Eastern Asia. Jung et al. From their findings, they emphasized the importance of sensory testing for describing a complex food matrix. Kim et al.

They indicated that consumer acceptability was significantly influenced by sweet and monosodium glutamate MSG flavor characteristics of products.

Sensory evaluation of food : principles and practices

The field of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the first edition of Sensory Evaluation of Food. Fifteen years ago, the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new. Now it holds an eminent position as a venue for research on sensory test methods among many other topics. Knowledge of the intricate cellular processes in chemoreception, as well as their genetic basis has undergone nothing less than a revolution, culminating in the award of the Nobel Prize to Buck and Axel in for their discovery of the olfactory receptor gene super family. Advances in statistical methodology have accelerated as well. Sensometrics meetings are now vigorous and well-attended annual events. And yet, some things stay the same.

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Lawless, H. Chapter 1, 2nd Edition, Ithaca, New York. ABSTRACT: The objective was to study the sensory attributes of organic leafy greens treated with plant antimicrobials and identify treatments most accepted by panelists. Antimicrobials evaluated include: 0.

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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Lawless , Harry T. The field of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the first edition of Sensory Evaluation of Food. Fifteen years ago, the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new.

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    Sensory Evaluation Practices ScienceDirect.

  3. Chapin V. 29.05.2021 at 04:03

    Preface I Appendix I - Basic Statistical Concepts for Sensory Evaluation II Appendix A II- Nonparametric and Binomial-based Statistical Methods III Statistical.

  4. Lidia A. 30.05.2021 at 19:22

    ISBN · Digitally watermarked, DRM-free · Included format: EPUB, PDF · ebooks can be used on all reading devices · Immediate eBook download.

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